AP Euro: Period 3

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What are some examples of British dominance in the Industrial Revolution?

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What are some examples of British dominance in the Industrial Revolution?

  • Crystal Palace: Architectural Masterpiece of Glass and Iron(Britain’s technological prowess is shown to the world)

  • Produced 2/3 of the world's coal and more than half of the world’s iron and cotton.

  • In 1750, Britain produced 2% of the world's industrial goods; by 1860, it had produced 20%.

  • 1830: The Liverpool and Manchester railway line opens. It’s the second railway line and marks the beginning of the modern railway era.

  • By 1837, Britain’s telegraph lines crossed the entire country and facilitated rapid communication.

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Why was Britain the first to industrialize?

  • It had abundant resources, like coal, iron, and waterways.

  • Its climate was temperate and had rain, making it perfect for agriculture and industry.

  • It’s colonies provided trade routes and raw materials

  • It had a stable government

  • The government gave financial awards to investors

  • Banks and insurance companies allowed for capital

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Why was Central and Eastern Europe late to industrialization?

  • Lack of natural resources and waterways, which limited trade.

  • Unstable political atmosphere, many different nationalistic sentiments and small states

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What was the Zollverein?

German customs union established in 1834, abolished internal tariffs and brought the total currencies in Germany from 30 to 2. Increased trade, industrialization, and growth. Led by Prussia.

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What was the Second industrial Revolution?

  • Bessemer process: Blowing air through melted iron to produce steel quickly and at a low cost.

  • Mass production

  • Electricity

  • Appliances

  • Consumer goods

  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Petrochemicals(Oil used in lamps)

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What was the Factory Act of 1833?

Children under 9 were banned from working in factories, and the workday for children 9-13 was limited to 8 hours.

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What was the Mines Act of 1842?

Banned children under 10 from working underground.

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What was the 10 Hours Act of 1847?

Women and children 13-18 could only work up to ten hours a day.

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How did marriage change during this period?

It became more love driven, not economically driven.

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These acts, accompanied with incomes rising after 1830 led to what?

Increased Leisure

  • Parks

  • Beaches

  • Museums

  • Travel

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What are some examples of increased consumerism?

  • Marketing/Advertising

  • Department stores

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What are some examples of increased communication?

  • Radio(1890s)

  • Telephone(1876)

  • Telegram(1830s)

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What are some examples of improved transportation?

  • Steamship: (1812), PS Comet in Scotland

  • Streetcars: In Paris(1855)

  • Combustion Engines(Cars kind of): Karl Benz(Germany 1885)

  • Bicycles:(1860s)Empowered women through freedom of movement and allowing them to wear skirts. Symbol of wealth until the 1890s.

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Example of Famine in the 1800s:

  • Irish Potato Famine

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What grew in the 1800s: Classical Liberalism or Intervention?


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Examples of new government intervention: Infrastructure:

  • Sewage and water systems: Completed in Paris and London in the 1870s.

  • Working Class Act of 1890: Local authorities in Britain allowed to clear slums and build public housing.

  • Public Redesign

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What was Public Redesign?

  • Paris: Haussmann(1850s-1870s) created wide boulevards, demolished overcrowded medieval neighborhoods, installed modern sewage systems, built public plazas, parks, and soon after in 1887 came the Eiffel tower.

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What were the Education Acts?

  • 1870: School became free for children 5-13.

  • 1880: Education made compulsory for children 5-10.

  • 1907: Inspection and regulation of schools introduced

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What two things happened in 1848?

  • Revolutions of 1848

  • Marx and Engel published the Communist Manifesto

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What was the 1st wave of Feminism(late 1800s-early 1900s)?

  • Right to vote

  • Right to own property

  • Right to higher education

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What were the Revolutions of 1848?

  • France(February Revolution): Began with a series of protests due to discontent with King Louis Phillipe I and economic discontent among the working class. The Urban bourgeoisie and the working class also sought civil liberties and greater representation. Louis Phillipe I abdicated after a peaceful protest became violent when confronted by authorities. The Second French Republic was established and censorship was abolished, the right to work was established, National workshops were created to help reduce unemployment. In December 1848, Napoleon III was elected the first president of the Second French Republic. It became gradually more authoritarian and the Second French Empire was established in 1851.(Kinda Succesful Revolution)

  • Failed in Italy, Austria, and Germany: All suppressed quickly.

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What two important things happened in 1861?

  • Unification of Italy

  • Emancipation of Serfs in Russia

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What were the Karlsbad Decrees(1819)?

Pushed by Metternich. Required that German states outlaw liberal political organizations, that they police newspapers and universities, and establish a permanent committee with spies and informers that would report liberal or radical reformers.

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What was Romanticism?

  • Peaked between 1790 and the 1840s

  • Emphasized emotion and subjectivity(the quality of being based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions).

  • Delved into the supernatural and appreciated nature

  • Celebrated imagination, spontaneity, and fantasy

  • Criticized modernism, industrialization, and urbanization

  • Romanticized the past

  • Challenged Enlightenment rationality

  • Led to religious revivals like methodism

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Who was Metternich?

An Austrian Empire Minister from 1809-1848. Sought to maintain stability, conservatism and the status quo by repressing revolutionary activity, such as liberalism and nationalism. A key proponent of the Concert of Europe and played a huge role at the Congress of Vienna.

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What were the revolutions of 1830?

  • Influenced by Nationalism, economic hardship, and political repression.

  • France: King Charles X was succeeded by Louis Phillipe I(The Citizen King)

  • Belgium: Became independent from Netherlands.

  • Poland: Uprising crushed by Russia

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What was the Decembrist Revolt(1825) and what was it influenced by?

  • Failed attempt by Russian military leaders to overthrow Tsar Nicholas I

  • Influenced by Liberal and Enlightenment Ideas and discontent with Autocratic Rule

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What did Bismarck do?

  • Weakened Austria’s Influence in Germany through forming the North German Confederation and the Austro-Prussian War.

  • Isolated France through the Triple Alliance(Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy), the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia

  • Manipulated Democratic Processes(Realpolitik)

  • Isolated France through the Three Emperors League: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. Aimed at preventing conflicts in Eastern Europe.

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What was the Congress of Berlin(1878)?

Aimed to establish a new political order in the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania were now completely independent.

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What was the First Balkan War(1912-1913) and the Second Balkan War(1913)?

  • First Balkan War: Ottomans lost almost all of their remaining European territories, such as Kosovo and Eastern Macedonia.

  • Second Balkan War: Bulgaria tried to regain territories lost in the First Balkan War, but instead suffered territorial losses instead.

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What was used to justify Imperialism?

  • Social Darwinism

  • Obligation to “civilize” and “educate” the “backward people”(White Man’s Burden)

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What are some advances in medicine of this time?

  • Anesthesia(1846)

  • Antiseptic/Sterilization(1860s)

  • Sewage and Clean water systems(Sand filtration and chlorination)(1850s on)

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What was the Berlin Conference(1884-1885)?

  • Prompted by the Scramble for Africa

  • Ended the slave trade

  • Allowed Christian missionaries

  • Partitioned Africa

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What was the Fashoda Crisis/Fashoda Incident(1898)?

Sparked by accidental British and French forces meeting in the Sudanese town of Fashoda. France withdrew its forces and recognized British control of the Nile region.

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What is Positivism?

  • A philosophical and scientific approach that emphasizes empirical observation/evidence, the scientific method, and the search for verifiable knowledge.

  • Challenged by New Relativism(It argues that knowledge is subjective and influenced by cultural, social, and historical factors):(ex: Tribes see the world differently than us, they could be right and we could be wrong)

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What is Realism?

Independent of what we think, there is an objective reality. Things exist whether we see them or not. In science, what we discover is what’s true, and what we discover later becomes true. In Art and Literature, we tell it like it is, not how we wish it were. Stressed life and how it really was, countered Romanticism.

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What is Materialism?

What we can measure and observe, what we can see and touch.

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What is Irrationality?

It challenged reason and rationality. Nietzsche explored this through existentialism(Stressed the meaninglessness of existence and the importance of the individual searching for moral value in an uncertain world). It challenged traditional notions of meaning, truth and morality.

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What is Freudian Psychology?

Struggle between the unconscious and subconscius.

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What did Einstein’s theory of relativity do?

Undermined Newtonian physics.

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What is Impressionism?

Emerged in France in the late 19th century. Depicted everyday life and emphasized more colors than detail. Challenged traditional notions of what art was.

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What is Cubism?

Broke reality down into geometric shapes and rearranged them into abstract compositions, challenged traditional notions of perspective and representation, which challenged traditional notions of what art was.

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