Henry VIII

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Henry VII's primary aim as king was to establish ======_ and restore stability to England in ====

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1

Henry VII's primary aim as king was to establish ======_ and restore stability to England in ====

order - 1485

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To secure his hold on the throne, Henry declared himself king by right of conquest retroactively from == ====== 14==, the day before Battle of ======== ====. Thus, anyone who had fought for Richard against him would be guilty of ======

21 August 1485
Bosworth Field
treason

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The ==== marriage between Henry VII and ======= in ==== united the warring houses of ======= and =====.

dynastic
Elizabeth of York
1486
Lancaster and York

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Perkin Warbeck Rebellion (==== to ====): A series of uprisings led by pretender Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to be the lost ====== ==== === ===.

1491-1499
Richard, Duke of York

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====== ===== (1===): A trade treaty between ===== and the ===== = == =====, which helped secure peace and fostered economic ties.

1496
Intercursus Magnus
England and the Duchy of Burgundy

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Treaty of ===== (=====): A peace treaty between England and ===== that brought an end to the hostilities of the ======= ==== == and provided Henry VII with a substantial financial settlement.

Etaples
1492
France
Hundred Years' War

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Exploration and Voyages: Henry VII supported several voyages of exploration, including those of ======== who discovered ============

John Cabot, who discovered Newfoundland in North America.

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Death of Prince Arthur (=====): The untimely death of Henry VII's eldest son and heir, Prince Arthur.

1502

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The justice system was reformed under Henry VII, and he sought to strengthen royal authority. ========, for instance, dealt with cases involving nobles and maintained ============

The Court of Star Chamber

law and order.

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Changes from Henry VII's rule to Henry VIII's rule in 1509:

1: When Henry VIII became king, he attacked his father's advisors and institutions

2: He arrested Empson and Dudley

3: He shut down the Council Learned in Law

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Fill the blanks:
Before ????, Henry VIII only called Parliament ????

Before 1529, Henry VIII only called Parliament twice

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1534 - Parliament and the Henrician Reformation:

Henry VIII's use of parliament set a precedent

Henry VIII and Cromwell had relied on Parliament

Parliament had a role in changing the country's religion

Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy and the Treason Act

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What year was the Parliament and the Henrician Reformation?

1534

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14

When Henry VIII couldn’t be interested in the details of government, who did he appoint as chief minister?

Thomas Wolsey

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What year was Wolsey appointed?

1510

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Wolsey rose through the Church’s ranks, when he overcame rivals at court in ????

1519

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What role did Wolsey gain by 1518 so quickly?

Papal Legate (he can act on the Pope’s behalf)

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18

True or False:
Wolsey was opposed to the ideas of Protestantism.

TRUE!

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19

In the late 1520s, what major event concerning Wolsey happened?

The Kings Great Matter

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The Kings Great Matter

Wolsey tried to protect the Church from the King as Henry VIII was frustrated by the Pope over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

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In regards to The Kings Great Matter, what was Henry concerned over?

Henry was concerned his royal prerogative was being undermined. Wolsey assured him it was not.

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22

Why was Henry disappointed with Wolsey in The Kings Great Matter?

Henry wanted Wolsey, as both chief minister and Papal Legate, to influence the Pope. Wolsey failed and the Church came under attack.

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Wolsey’s first failing in 1525

Amicable Grant - 1525:

Wolsey introduced the grant to fund Henry VIII’s war with France. It resulted in rebellion and Henry was forced to pull out of the war.

This led to Henry questioning Wolsey’s loyalty.

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When was Wolsey sacked?

1529

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25

When was Cromwell named Henry;s new chief minister?

1532

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26

True or False:
In the mid-1530s, Cromwell encouraged preachers to spread Protestant messages.

True

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What huge event did Cromwell play a major role in?

The dissolution of monasteries.

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When did the dissolution of monasteries happen?

1536

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How long did Parliament last under Cromwell?

Seven Years

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The Royal Council became…?

The Privy Council

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Cromwell’s End

  • Cromwell was Henry VIII's last chief minister.

  • The humiliating failure of Henry VIII's marriage to Anne of Cleves was pinned on Cromwell by the Duke of Norfolk and his niece, Catherine Howard.

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Accusation of treason - Cromwell

  • Cromwell was accused of treason and heresy by the Duke of Norfolk.

  • An Act of Attainder was passed against him and he was accused of failing to properly enforce the Act of the Six Articles.

  • Cromwell was executed in July 1540, the day Henry married Catherine Howard.

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33

What was the significance of the Act of Supremacy?

The Act of Supremacy, passed in 1534, declared Henry VIII the supreme head of the Church of England, establishing the break from the authority of the Pope in Rome.

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34

What was the purpose of Henry VIII's six marriages?

Henry VIII's marriages were primarily driven by his desire for a male heir. His quest for a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, led to the English Reformation.

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What was the dissolution of the monasteries?

Series of events between 1536 and 1541 where Henry VIII disbanded Catholic monasteries, confiscated their assets, and transferred their lands to the Crown.

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What was the Pilgrimage of Grace?

Widespread rebellion in 1536 against Henry VIII's religious policies, particularly the dissolution of the monasteries. Led by conservative Catholic factions demanding a return to traditional practices.

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How did Henry VIII's reign impact the religious landscape of England?

Henry VIII's reign marked the beginning of the English Reformation and the establishment of Protestantism in England.

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38

Who: Cornish Rebels

What: A rebellion by Cornish peasants and ===== against the ====== === ===== and the recruitment of —————— with ———.

Why: The rebels were angered by ============== and resented ========== they believed was not their concern.

When: ====

Where: Primarily in Cornwall, England

gentry

imposition of taxes

soldiers for war with Scotland

the burdensome taxation policies
being forced to fight in a war

1497

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Who: Pilgrimage of Grace

What: A large-scale rebellion led by ===================== against Henry VIII's religious reforms and the dissolution of the monasteries.

Why: The rebels were opposed to the break ==== ======= and the ============== ========= and the =============

When: 153? to 15??

Where: Primarily in Northern England

conservative Catholic factions, including nobles and clergy,

with Rome, the suppression of monasteries, and the introduction of Protestant practices in the Church.

1536-1537

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Who: Wyatt's Rebellion

What: A rebellion led by ========= and his supporters, including ====== and ====, against =========’s plan to ============= and restore Catholicism.

Why: The rebels were opposed to the proposed marriage and feared the ===========, as well as ==============.

When: 15

Where: Primarily in ===, England

Sir Thomas Wyatt

nobles and gentry

against Queen Mary I's plan to marry Philip of Spain

reimposition of Catholicism

the influence of Spain on English affairs.

1554

Kent

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Who: Western Rebellion (also known as the Prayer Book Rebellion)

What: A rebellion by ======================== against the imposition of the ====================== and religious changes under =======.

Why: The rebels were predominantly Catholic and resisted the reforms, favoring traditional Catholic practices and liturgy.

When: 15==

Where: Primarily in Cornwall and Devon, England

Cornish and Devonian commoners

Protestant Book of Common Prayer

Edward VI

1549

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Who: Kett's Rebellion

What: A rebellion led by ====== ==== and his supporters, including peasants and landless laborers, against ====== and ============== faced by the rural population.

Why: The rebels were frustrated by the increasing =============== which limited ============== and livelihoods.

When: 15==

Where: Primarily in Norfolk, England

Robert Kett

enclosures and the economic hardships

enclosures of common land, which limited their access to resources

1549

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Who: Wyatt's Rebellion (Second Revolt)

What: A failed rebellion led by Sir Thomas Wyatt and his supporters against ======= ====== ==== == === ======= ======= =

Why: The rebels were concerned about === ====== ==== ==== = === ==== under a foreign king.

When: ====

Where: Primarily in London, England

Queen Mary I's marriage to Philip of Spain and her continued efforts to restore Catholicism.

the Spanish influence and the potential loss of English liberties

1554

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Who: Northern Earls Rebellion

What: A rebellion led by ====== ====, including the Earls of ======== and ========, against Queen ======= =='s religious policies and her perceived threat to ————.

Why: The rebels were concerned about the increased ======= influence and the repression of —————- under ————'s reign.

When: 1===

Where: Primarily in Northern England

Catholic nobles

Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland

Elizabeth I

Catholicism

Protestant

Catholicism

Elizabeth

1569

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hiya harvey in the future! [or matthew] heres just a fun one to break up the intense remembering:

whats your favourite nickname that harvey calls you

gruffalo :DD
stay strong matt and harv! you are amazing! we love you!

- future matt and harv when we have already moved in together

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46

Who: ====== Plot

What: A conspiracy orchestrated by ===== ===, an Italian banker, and a group of === ==== ====, to assassinate ==== ======= = and replace her with =====, === ==.

Why: The plotters aimed to restore ===== to England and saw Mary, Queen of Scots, as a potential ======= === who could challenge ======= ====== rule.

When: 1===

Where: Mainly centered in England, with involvement from European figures

Ridolfi Plot

Roberto Ridolfi

English Catholic nobles

Queen Elizabeth I

Mary, Queen of Scots

Catholicism

Catholic monarch

Elizabeth's Protestant rule

1571

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Who: Throckmorton Plot

What: A conspiracy led by Francis Throckmorton, an English Catholic, to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, supported by Catholic Spain.

Why: The plotters sought to remove Elizabeth from power and establish a Catholic regime in England, aligning with Spain's interests.

When: 1583

Where: Mostly centered in England, with connections to Catholic networks in France and Spain

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48

Who: Babington Plot

What: A plot devised by Anthony Babington and a group of Catholic conspirators to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I and install Mary, Queen of Scots, on the English throne.

Why: The plotters aimed to overthrow Elizabeth and bring about a Catholic monarchy under Mary's rule, with support from Catholic powers such as Spain and France.

When: 1586

Where: Primarily centered in England, with connections to Catholic networks abroad

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Who: Essex Rebellion

What: A failed rebellion led by Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, against Queen Elizabeth I's government and her close advisors.

Why: The rebellion was driven by Essex's political ambitions and his frustration with his limited influence at court. He sought to remove Elizabeth's advisors and gain greater power for himself.

When: 1601

Where: Mainly centered in London, England

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