Studied by 6 people

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Hint

1

waves

a way of transferring energy from place to place without matter by oscillations about a fixed point

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2

two types of waves

longitudinal

transverse

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3

transverse waves

waves where the points along its length vibrate at 90 degrees to the direction of energy transfer

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4

features of transverse waves

have peaks and troughs

vibrate 90 degrees to the direction of energy transfer

transfer energy but not particles

cannot move in gas

electromagnetic waves can move in a vacuum

constant density and pressure

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peak/crest

highest point on the wave above the rest position

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trough

lowest point on the wave below the rest position

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7

transverse waves - 4 examples

ripples on water

vibrations in a guitar string

s-waves

EM waves

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8

longitudinal waves

waves where the points along its length vibrate parallel to the direction of energy transfer

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9

features of longitudinal waves

have compressions and rarefactions

parallel to direction of energy transfer

transfer energy but not particles

move in all 3 states of matter

cannot move in a vacuum

changes in density and pressure

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compressions

close together

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rarefaction

far apart

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12

longitudinal waves - 3 examples

sound waves

p-waves

pressure waves

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13

amplitude (A)

distance from the undisturbed position to the peak or trough of a wave

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14

unit for amplitude

metres

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15

wavelength

distance from one point on the wave to the same point on the next wave

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16

wavelength - transverse waves

measured from one peak to the next peak

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wavelength - longitudinal waves

measured from the centre of one compression to the centre of the next

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18

symbol for wavelength

λ (lambda)

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unit for wavelength

metres

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20

frequency (f)

number of waves passing a point in a second

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21

unit for frequency

hertz (Hz)

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22

time period (T)

time taken for a single wave to pass a point

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unit for time period

seconds

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24

wavefronts

created by overlapping lots of different waves and represented by a line where all the vibrations are in phase and the same distance from the source

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wavefront - ray

arrow showing the direction the wave is moving

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wavefront - wavelength

space between each wavefront

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wavefronts close together

short wavelength

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wavefronts far apart

long wavelength

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29

relationship between the speed, frequency and wavelength of a wave

wave speed = frequency x wavelength

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unit for wave speed

m/s

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relationship between frequency and time period

frequency = 1/ timeperiod

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32

1 kHz to Hz

1 kHz = 1000 Hz

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33

doppler effect

change in wavelength and frequency of a wave emitted by a moving source

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34

doppler effect - wave source moving towards the observer

observed frequency increases

observed wavelength decreases

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35

doppler effect - wave source moving away from the observer

observed frequency decreases

observed wavelength increases

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36

reflection

a wave hits a boundary between two media and does not pass through, but instead stays in the original medium

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37

refraction

a wave passes a boundary between two different transparent media and undergoes a change in direction

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38

sound waves

vibration of air molecules

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39

what happens to a sound wave when it comes into contact with a solid

vibrations transfer to the solid

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40

are sound waves longitudinal or transverse

longitudinal

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41

reflection of sound waves

echo

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42

electromagnetic waves

transverse waves that transfer energy from the source of the waves to an absorber

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43

properties of EM waves

transverse

travel through a vacuum at the same speed

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