IB Computer Science - Exam 1 Review

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CPU (Central Processing Unit)

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when are we going to start coding dawg

34 Terms

1

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

processes and executes various instructions/programs sent by the end-user

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2

CU (Control Unit)

controls the flow of data and regulates the processor while interpreting/decoding instructions

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3

ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)

responsible for calculation and logistic processes

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4

Peripherals

any external device that provides input/output for the computer (ex. mouse or printer)

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5

RAM (Random Access Memory)

volatile primary memory that temporarily holds data/results of executions connected to the CPU

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6

HDD/SSD

secondary memory that permanently stores data

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7

ROM (Read-Only Memory)

NONvolatile primary memory that holds data in order to boot computer and may not be modified

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8

MAR

memory address register that holds the address of data sent to or from the RAM

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9

MDR

memory data register that holds the data sent to or from the RAM

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10

CPU Cycle

Fetch - instruction sent from RAM to CU Decode - instruction decoded and sent to ALU Execute - ALU executes code Store - ALU sends it to RAM for temporary storage

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11

Clock Speed

amount of cycles per second that the CPU may execute (GHz) (hyper-threading allows for several computes at once)

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12

Buses

physical connections btwn. components to send data/addresses/power/signals

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13

Data Bus

sends data btwn. hardware

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14

Control Bus

transfers control signals btwn. components to create a structure of communication

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15

Address Bus

sends addresses to other components

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16

System Bus

contains data/address/control buses (3 in 1)

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17

Cache Memory

smallest yet most efficient memory that the CPU can directly access/synchronize with to improve performance

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18

OS (operating system)

collection of programs that control the executes of software applications such as data mgmt. and I/O control

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19

OS Security

user mgmt (password) / firewall / anti-virus / system of privileges

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20

Bit

binary digit representing 0 or 1

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21

Byte

8 bits (1024 bytes in 1 kilobyte)

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22

Binary to Denary (decimal base-10)

positions from right to left calculating using 2 to the power of x (x representing position), multiplying it by the binary value and adding them all up

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23

Binary System

base-2 system that is used in digital circuits

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24

Hexadecimal System

base-16 system to simplify binary by representing 4-bit binary sequence, commonly used to describe colors

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25

Binary to Hexadecimals

values above 9 in binary are representing in letters (A-F) to represent 10-15

0000 = 0 0001 = 1 .... 1001 = 9 1010 = A .... 1111 = F

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26

Hexadecimal to Denary

positions from right, number/letter value multiplied by 16^x (x representing the position) (ex. 2A = (216^1) + (A16^0) = 42)

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Decimal Values

multiply decimals by 2 till singular whole number, ones of mixed numbers used to represent 1's (1.375 (denary) = 1.011 (binary))

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28

Denary to Hexadecimal

divide number by 16, remainder written as hexadecimal answer from right to left, keep dividing quotient till equal to 0.

650 = 28A

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29

Direct Changeover

New System completely replaces old system in a short amount of time (ex. an entire law firm moves from one building to another in a day)

Advantages

  • Cheap, Easy

  • Efficient, short installation time

  • Available Immediately

Disadvantages

  • Compatibility Issues may arise

  • No recovery available

  • Employees may not like system

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30

Parallel Changeover

New system started alongside old system and used with the same data (ex. 2 internet providers used at the same time)

Advantages

  • If new system fails, old system runs backups

  • Both systems may be compared to see if new system provides correct results

Disadvantages

  • Takes significantly longer to do so

  • Costly to keep both running

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Pilot Changeover

New system tested on a small section alongside large-scale old system, once ironed out, new system will completely replace old system

Advantages

  • Cost-Effective

  • All features tested

  • If it fails, then it will only effect a small number of people

Disadvantages

  • Those in the pilot group will have a delay in work efficiency

  • The pilot group may approve of the new system, but others may not

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Phase Changeover

New system introduced in phases, slowly replaces old system in parts (ex. changing computers in a large school. classroom by classroom each day)

Advantages

  • Allows people to get used to system

  • Training of staff done in stages

Disadvantages

  • 100% implementation will take much longer

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33

Types of Data Loss

  • Hardware/Systems malfunctions

  • Human Error

  • Software Corruption

  • Malicious Software (Viruses)

  • Natural Disasters

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34

Ways to Prevent Data Loss

  • Updates - fix problems found by people to prevent software corruption by fixing code, usually free

  • Patches - small bits of code inserted into program for temporary fixes

  • Human Error Prevention - keep liquids and magnets away, use a backup power supply (UPS), clean computers, and keep it safe from theft

  • Removable Media - makes it easy to safely remove storage from computers to others

  • Offsite Storage - a backup process external to an organization which is a physical copy

  • Cloud Storage - backup stored on the internet which is done remotely

  • Failover System - constant capability to automatically switch to a reliable backup system when the primary server fails

  • Data Redundancy - same piece of data held in two separate places to offer extra layer of protection

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