Viruses, Immune system, vaccines

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47 Terms

1

vaccine

substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity

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2

Antiviral

Substance given to make a viral replication and entrance into the host cell ineffective

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3

Live Attenuated Vaccine

weakened live virus

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4

Examples of Attenuated Viruses

Chickenpox vaccine

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5

Inactivated vaccines

Pathogen has been completely killed. Frequently requires boosters.

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6

Examples of Inactivated vaccines

Polio virus

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7

subunit vaccines

Contain only parts of a virus or bacteria instead of the whole thing (like glycoproteins)

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8

Examples of subunit vaccines

whooping cough

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9

mRNA vaccines

Contains mRNA from the pathogen that codes for a specific glycoprotein which is created by the host's cells and stimulated an immune response.

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10

Example of an mRna vaccine

COVID -19 vaccine

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11

Vector vaccine

a vaccine made by inserting genes from a pathogenic virus into a relatively harmless carrier virus like the adenovirus

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12

Examples of vectors used for the Vector vaccine

Adenoviruses and herpes viruses

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13

Edward Jenner

Developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796

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14

Memory cells

Long lived WBC, Contains record of the past infection

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15

Mast cells

Key players in the inflammatory response, Release histamines to alert the body

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16

Antigens

Pieces of foreign substances, prompts the production of antibodies

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17

Antibodies

Protein produced by B cells, attached to the antigen to signal invader has been located

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18

B cells

Creates antibodies, Created in the Bone Marrow

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19

CD4 receptor

Only Helper t cells have it, allows HIV to attach

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20

MHC 1

Most cells have them and signal all is well, like the American flag

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21

MHC 2

Only Phagocytes have them, like Texas flag

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22

CH8 receptor

Only in Cytotoxic cells, Neighborhood police

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23

Innate Immune system

Nonspecific, Everyone is the Enemy

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24

3rd line of defense

Specific (targets specific invaders), Adaptive immune response

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25

1st line of defense

Skin, mucus, acids and bacteria, Keeps all invaders out

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26

2nd line of defense

Mast cells and Phagocytes, Release pyrogens to heat up and histamines to grab

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27

Natural killer cells

Kills cells that are cancerous, Recognize cells without MHC 1

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28

Neutrophils

Patrol the body for invaders, part of the nonspecific response since they are "neutral"

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29

Macrophages

Collects antigens in certain sites, BIG eaters of any invader

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30

Dendritic cells

Goes between for the innate and Adaptive Immune system, Door dash

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31

Cytotoxic T cells

Recognize and Kill infected cells, release perforins to poke out the infected cells

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32

Helper T cell

Calls of help

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33

Lytic Cycle

In this type of replication, many copies of the virus are created very quickly and results in the destruction of the host cell.

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34

Lysogenic Cycle

This type of replication allows the virus to replicate many times (when the host replicates) without immediately killing the host

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35

Capsid

the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus

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36

Lipid Envelope

Contains lipids and proteins that enclose the Core. Originates from a host’s plasma membrane during the budding process

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37

Collar (neck)

Connects the head to the tail of the phage.

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38

Tail Fibers

Projections from the baseplate that attach to the host’s surface

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39

Sheath (tail)

External contractile envelope that wraps around the tail tube. It contracts to inject the DNA into the host.

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40

Base Plate

Contains proteins that attach to and punctures the surface of the host.

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41

Provirus

cDNA copy of the RNA genome of a retrovirus; the genetic material of a virus as incorporated into and able to replicate with the genome of a host cell

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42

Mitosis

How the lysogenic cycle spreads its DNA

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43

DNA Replication

How bacteriophage genes are expressed in the lytic cycle.

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44

Interferons

antiviral agents produced by virus-infected cells and can fight tumors. They protect non-infected cells from further viral infections by creating cytokine barriers

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45

interleukin

any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system. Helps them divide and grow faster.

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46

lymphokines

a non-immunoglobulin polypeptide substance synthesized mainly by T cells that affects the function of other cells. It may either enhance or suppress an immune response

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47

Perforins

involved in the process of cell destruction (cytolysis) and the regulation of the immune system. Found in T-cells and Natural Killer T-cells.

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