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How many bones make up the cranium? a. 4 b. 6 c. 8 d. 10
The cranial bones are rigidly jointed together by articulations called: a. joints b. bursae c. sutures d. cartilage
All of the following are cranial bones EXCEPT the: a. maxillae b. frontal c. sphenoid d. occipital
Which skull suture is found between the frontal and parietal bones? a. sagittal b. coronal c. squamosal d. lambdoidal
Which skull suture is located between the parietal bones? a. hyoid b. coronal c. sagittal d. squamosal
Which bone in the skull contains the auditory organs and the organs of hearing? a. temporal b. sphenoid c. occipital d. ethmoid
The petromastoid portion is a part of which bone? a. temporal b. sphenoid c. occipital d. ethmoid
Which of the following skull types is considered average in size and shape? a. Mesocephalic b. Brachycephalic c. Dolichocephalic
Which skull type is narrow from side to side?a. Mesocephalic b. Dolichocephalic c. Brachycephalic
In a typically shaped head, the petrous pyramids project anteriorly and medially at what angle?
Which plane of the head is placed parallel to the plane of the IR for a lateral projection of the skull?
The central ray and center of the image receptor position for a lateral projection of the skull is _____ inch(es) _____ the EAM.
Which projection of the skull requires MSP be positioned parallel and interpupillary line perpendicular to the IR plane?
mandible overlapping cervical spine
All of the following should be seen on a lateral image of the skull, except
Which method of examining the skull will demonstrate the petrous ridges in the orbits, the ethmoid and frontal sinuses, and the crista galli?
15 degrees caudad
The central-ray angle for the PA axial (Caldwell) projection of the skull is:
Which of the following is perpendicular to the image receptor plane for a Caldwell projection of the skull?
15 degrees cephalad
Often, a patient cannot be turned into the prone position for a PA axial projection of the skull, Caldwell Method. What CR angle could be used if the AP axial projection is used instead?
Which of the following lines is placed perpendicular to the image receptor plane for the AP axial (Towne) projection?
If the patient cannot flex the neck to place the orbitomeatal line perpendicular to the image receptor for an AP axial (Towne) projection, which line should be placed perpendicular?
For an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull, the center of the IR is at or near the level of the:
37 degrees caudal
If the infraorbitomeatal line is placed perpendicular to the IR during an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull, how much is the central ray angled?
What is the central-ray angulation for the SMV projection?
How many bones are contained in the skull?
The suture located between the occipital bone and the parietal bones is the:
The six areas of incomplete ossification in a newborn infants skull are called:
The superior aspect of the sphenoid bone contains a deep depression that contains the:
The posterior half of the base of the skull is formed by which bone?
The large aperture in the occipital bone, through which the medulla oblongata and spinal cord exit, is termed the:
petrous portion of the temporal bone
The thickest and densest portion of bone in the cranium is the:
All of these structures are demonstrated on an AP axial (Towne method) projection of the skull, except:
Dorsum sellae Posterior clinoids
Which two are clearly demonstrated within the foramen magnum during an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull? (select all that apply)
Towne (AP axial) Caldwell (PA axial)
Which two methods will clearly demonstrate the petrous ridges, foramen magnum, dorsum sellae, and posterior clinoid processes?(select all that apply)
Which two bones are contained in the floor of the cranium? (select all that apply)
Which two bones are contained in the calvarium? (select all that apply?)
Foramen rotundum Optic foramen
Which two of the following foramina lie in the sphenoid bone? (select all that apply)
Which two parts of the patients face touch the table for a PA axial projection (Caldwell method)? Select all that apply
PA axial, Caldwell Method
Which projection of the skull can be correctly performed with the central ray angled 15 degrees caudad?
Which projection of the skull projects the petrous pyramids in the lower third of the orbits
Dorsum sellae and posterior clinoid processes visible within the foramen magnum
Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull
Superimposed orbital roofs and greater wings of sphenoid
Which evaluation criterion pertains to the lateral projection of the skull
With reference to the patient, where should the central ray be centered for the PA projection of the skull?
2 inches superior to the EAM
With reference to the patient, where should the central ray enter for the lateral projection of the skull
IPL is perpendicular; MSP is parallel
How should the IPL and MSP be positioned for the lateral projection of the skull
30 degrees caudad
For the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull, how many degrees and in which direction should the central ray be directed when the OML is perpendicular to the IR?
37 degrees caudad
For the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull, how many degrees and in which direction should the central ray be directed when the IOML is perpendicular to the IR?
Which positioning line should be parallel w/ the IR for the SMV projection of the skull
shows orbits filled by petrous ridges
Which evaluation criteria pertains to the perpendicular PA projection of the skull
mandibular condyle anterior to petrosae
Which evaluation criteria pertains to the SMV projection of the skull
OML and MSP
Which two positioning lines or planes should be perpendicular to the IR for the PA/PA axial projection of the skull?
PA axial (Caldwell)
Which projection will best demonstrate the frontal and anterior ethmoidal sinuses?
All of the following are facial bones EXCEPT the:
All of these projections will demonstrate the ethmoidal sinuses, except:
1 inch posterior to the outer canthus
For a lateral projection of the paranasal sinuses, the central ray is directed
Which reference line is positioned horizontal to ensure proper extension of the head during a lateral projection of the sinuses?
The central ray is directed perpendicular to which reference line for the SMV projection of the sinuses?
The largest sinus is the:
The cranial bones are rigidly jointed together by articulations called:
Where is the image receptor centered for the parietocanthial (Waters method) projection of the sinuses?
All of the following bones contain air sinuses, except:
Which sinus is projected through the mouth on the open-mouth modification of the Waters method?
petrous ridge in lower third of orbits
All of the following should be clearly demonstrated on a lateral projection of the paranasal sinus, except
The central ray forms an angle of how many degrees with the OML for the PA axial (Caldwell) projection of the sinuses?
When using the angled grid technique for the PA axial (Caldwell method) projection of the sinuses, the vertical grid device must be angled:
The parietocanthial projection (Waters method) of the sinuses requires the orbitomeatal line to be placed how many degrees from the plane of the image receptor?
Inferior to the floor of the maxillary sinuses
Where are the petrous ridges seen on an image of a parietocanthial (Waters method) projection of the paranasal sinuses?
1/2 inch anterior to the level of the EAM
At which level should the central ray enter the base of the skull for the SMV projection of the sinuses?
1 and 2
The paranasal sinuses should always be examined in the upright position to:
demonstrate the presence or absence of fluid2. differentiate between fluid and other pathologic conditions3. make it easier for the radiographer to position the patient
The maxillary sinus is located in which bone?
At what age are all of the sinuses completely developed?
Which projection best demonstrates the maxillary sinuses?
Which part of the patient's face is touching the upright Bucky, or table, for a parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?
1, 2, and 3
Which of the following are included as functions of the sinuses?
Decrease the weight of the skull2. Warm and moisten inhaled air3. Provide a resonating chamber for voice
Which of the following must be projected below the maxillary sinuses for the parietocanthial projection (Waters method) of the sinuses?
Which sinus is located immediately below the sella turcica?
Which of the sinuses is developed at birth and visible radiographically?
Which reference line is positioned perpendicular to the angled image receptor for the PA axial (Caldwell method) projection of the sinuses?
All of the following are cranial bones except the
How many bones make up the face?
the zygomatic arches are a part of which bone?
The largest and most dense bone of the face is the:
Which facial bone contains a foramen through which the tear duct passes?
How many bones compose the bony orbit?
The orbit is made up of _____ cranial bones and _____ facial bones.