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c. 8

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c. 8

How many bones make up the cranium? a. 4 b. 6 c. 8 d. 10

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c. sutures

The cranial bones are rigidly jointed together by articulations called: a. joints b. bursae c. sutures d. cartilage

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a. maxillae

All of the following are cranial bones EXCEPT the: a. maxillae b. frontal c. sphenoid d. occipital

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b. coronal

Which skull suture is found between the frontal and parietal bones? a. sagittal b. coronal c. squamosal d. lambdoidal

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c. sagittal

Which skull suture is located between the parietal bones? a. hyoid b. coronal c. sagittal d. squamosal

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a. temporal

Which bone in the skull contains the auditory organs and the organs of hearing? a. temporal b. sphenoid c. occipital d. ethmoid

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a. temporal

The petromastoid portion is a part of which bone? a. temporal b. sphenoid c. occipital d. ethmoid

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a. Mesocephalic

Which of the following skull types is considered average in size and shape? a. Mesocephalic b. Brachycephalic c. Dolichocephalic

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b. Dolichocephalic

Which skull type is narrow from side to side?a. Mesocephalic b. Dolichocephalic c. Brachycephalic

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47 degrees

In a typically shaped head, the petrous pyramids project anteriorly and medially at what angle?

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midsagittal

Which plane of the head is placed parallel to the plane of the IR for a lateral projection of the skull?

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2; above

The central ray and center of the image receptor position for a lateral projection of the skull is _____ inch(es) _____ the EAM.

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Lateral

Which projection of the skull requires MSP be positioned parallel and interpupillary line perpendicular to the IR plane?

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mandible overlapping cervical spine

All of the following should be seen on a lateral image of the skull, except

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Caldwell

Which method of examining the skull will demonstrate the petrous ridges in the orbits, the ethmoid and frontal sinuses, and the crista galli?

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15 degrees caudad

The central-ray angle for the PA axial (Caldwell) projection of the skull is:

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Orbitomeatal line

Which of the following is perpendicular to the image receptor plane for a Caldwell projection of the skull?

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15 degrees cephalad

Often, a patient cannot be turned into the prone position for a PA axial projection of the skull, Caldwell Method. What CR angle could be used if the AP axial projection is used instead?

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OML

Which of the following lines is placed perpendicular to the image receptor plane for the AP axial (Towne) projection?

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IOML

If the patient cannot flex the neck to place the orbitomeatal line perpendicular to the image receptor for an AP axial (Towne) projection, which line should be placed perpendicular?

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foramen magnum

For an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull, the center of the IR is at or near the level of the:

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37 degrees caudal

If the infraorbitomeatal line is placed perpendicular to the IR during an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull, how much is the central ray angled?

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0 degrees

What is the central-ray angulation for the SMV projection?

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22

How many bones are contained in the skull?

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lambodial

The suture located between the occipital bone and the parietal bones is the:

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fontanels

The six areas of incomplete ossification in a newborn infants skull are called:

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pituitary gland

The superior aspect of the sphenoid bone contains a deep depression that contains the:

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Occipital

The posterior half of the base of the skull is formed by which bone?

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foramen magnum

The large aperture in the occipital bone, through which the medulla oblongata and spinal cord exit, is termed the:

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petrous portion of the temporal bone

The thickest and densest portion of bone in the cranium is the:

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frontal bone

All of these structures are demonstrated on an AP axial (Towne method) projection of the skull, except:

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Dorsum sellae Posterior clinoids

Which two are clearly demonstrated within the foramen magnum during an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull? (select all that apply)

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Towne (AP axial) Caldwell (PA axial)

Which two methods will clearly demonstrate the petrous ridges, foramen magnum, dorsum sellae, and posterior clinoid processes?(select all that apply)

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Sphenoid Ethmoid

Which two bones are contained in the floor of the cranium? (select all that apply)

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Frontal Parietal

Which two bones are contained in the calvarium? (select all that apply?)

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Foramen rotundum Optic foramen

Which two of the following foramina lie in the sphenoid bone? (select all that apply)

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Nose Forehead

Which two parts of the patients face touch the table for a PA axial projection (Caldwell method)? Select all that apply

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PA axial, Caldwell Method

Which projection of the skull can be correctly performed with the central ray angled 15 degrees caudad?

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PA axial, Caldwell Method

Which projection of the skull projects the petrous pyramids in the lower third of the orbits

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Dorsum sellae and posterior clinoid processes visible within the foramen magnum

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull

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Superimposed orbital roofs and greater wings of sphenoid

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the lateral projection of the skull

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Nasion

With reference to the patient, where should the central ray be centered for the PA projection of the skull?

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2 inches superior to the EAM

With reference to the patient, where should the central ray enter for the lateral projection of the skull

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IPL is perpendicular; MSP is parallel

How should the IPL and MSP be positioned for the lateral projection of the skull

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30 degrees caudad

For the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull, how many degrees and in which direction should the central ray be directed when the OML is perpendicular to the IR?

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37 degrees caudad

For the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull, how many degrees and in which direction should the central ray be directed when the IOML is perpendicular to the IR?

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Infraorbital line

Which positioning line should be parallel w/ the IR for the SMV projection of the skull

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shows orbits filled by petrous ridges

Which evaluation criteria pertains to the perpendicular PA projection of the skull

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mandibular condyle anterior to petrosae

Which evaluation criteria pertains to the SMV projection of the skull

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OML and MSP

Which two positioning lines or planes should be perpendicular to the IR for the PA/PA axial projection of the skull?

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PA axial (Caldwell)

Which projection will best demonstrate the frontal and anterior ethmoidal sinuses?

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ethmoid

All of the following are facial bones EXCEPT the:

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parietocanthial (waters)

All of these projections will demonstrate the ethmoidal sinuses, except:

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1 inch posterior to the outer canthus

For a lateral projection of the paranasal sinuses, the central ray is directed

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IOML

Which reference line is positioned horizontal to ensure proper extension of the head during a lateral projection of the sinuses?

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IOML

The central ray is directed perpendicular to which reference line for the SMV projection of the sinuses?

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maxillary

The largest sinus is the:

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sutures

The cranial bones are rigidly jointed together by articulations called:

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Acanthion

Where is the image receptor centered for the parietocanthial (Waters method) projection of the sinuses?

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parietal

All of the following bones contain air sinuses, except:

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Sphenoidal

Which sinus is projected through the mouth on the open-mouth modification of the Waters method?

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petrous ridge in lower third of orbits

All of the following should be clearly demonstrated on a lateral projection of the paranasal sinus, except

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15 degrees

The central ray forms an angle of how many degrees with the OML for the PA axial (Caldwell) projection of the sinuses?

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15 degrees

When using the angled grid technique for the PA axial (Caldwell method) projection of the sinuses, the vertical grid device must be angled:

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37 degrees

The parietocanthial projection (Waters method) of the sinuses requires the orbitomeatal line to be placed how many degrees from the plane of the image receptor?

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Inferior to the floor of the maxillary sinuses

Where are the petrous ridges seen on an image of a parietocanthial (Waters method) projection of the paranasal sinuses?

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1/2 inch anterior to the level of the EAM

At which level should the central ray enter the base of the skull for the SMV projection of the sinuses?

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1 and 2

The paranasal sinuses should always be examined in the upright position to:

  1. demonstrate the presence or absence of fluid2. differentiate between fluid and other pathologic conditions3. make it easier for the radiographer to position the patient

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Maxilla

The maxillary sinus is located in which bone?

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18

At what age are all of the sinuses completely developed?

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Parietocanthial (Waters)

Which projection best demonstrates the maxillary sinuses?

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chin

Which part of the patient's face is touching the upright Bucky, or table, for a parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?

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1, 2, and 3

Which of the following are included as functions of the sinuses?

  1. Decrease the weight of the skull2. Warm and moisten inhaled air3. Provide a resonating chamber for voice

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Petrous pyramids

Which of the following must be projected below the maxillary sinuses for the parietocanthial projection (Waters method) of the sinuses?

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Sphenoidal

Which sinus is located immediately below the sella turcica?

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maxillary

Which of the sinuses is developed at birth and visible radiographically?

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OML

Which reference line is positioned perpendicular to the angled image receptor for the PA axial (Caldwell method) projection of the sinuses?

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maxillae

All of the following are cranial bones except the

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14

How many bones make up the face?

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Temporal

the zygomatic arches are a part of which bone?

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mandible

The largest and most dense bone of the face is the:

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lacrimal

Which facial bone contains a foramen through which the tear duct passes?

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7

How many bones compose the bony orbit?

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three; four

The orbit is made up of _____ cranial bones and _____ facial bones.

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zygomatic bone

For a lateral projection of the facial bones, the image receptor is centered to the:

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Infraorbitomeatal line

Which of the following is placed perpendicular to the front edge of the IR for a lateral projection of the facial bones?

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halfway between the outer canthus and the EAM

For a lateral projection of the facial bones, the central ray will enter:

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all facial bones in their entirety

The lateral projection of the facial bones clearly demonstrates

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Waters

The parietocanthial projection of the facial bones is commonly called the _______ method.

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37 degrees

For the Waters method for the facial bones, the orbitomeatal line is placed at what angle to the IR?

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1 and 3

Which of the following is (are) true regarding positioning for the Waters method for the facial bones?

  1. The orbitomeatal line forms a 37 degree angle with the plane of the IR2. The infraorbitomeatal line forms a 37 degree angle with the plane of the IR3. The midsagittal plane is perpendicular to the IR plane

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Acanthion

Which of the following is centered to the image receptor for a parietocanthial projection of the facial bones?

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foramen magnum

All of the following are clearly demonstrated on the parietocanthial projection (Waters method) except:

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55

The parietocanthial projection (Waters method) of the facial bones is often modified so that there is less angulation of the facial bones. For this modification, the orbitomeatal line is adjusted to ______ degrees.

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Mentomeatal line

Which of the following is placed perpendicular to the image receptor for the acanthoparietal projection (reverse waters) of the facial bones?

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0 degrees

The central-ray angulation for the reverse Waters method when OML is properly positioned is:

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mentomeatal line

Trauma patients may arrive in the radiology department with their head immobilized. A Reverse Waters method can always be performed on these patients by adjusting the CR parallel to the:

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1, 2, and 3

Which of the following is true regarding the lateral projection of the nasal bones?

  1. MSP is parallel with the tabletop2. Both sides are done for comparison3. The interpupillary line is perpendicular to the tabletop

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IOML

For a submentovertical projection of the zygomatic arches, the central ray is directed perpendicular to the ________ line.

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SMV and AP axial

Both zygomatic arches can be demonstrated on one projection for which of the following projections:

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