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Long Telegram

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Long Telegram

The message written by George Kennan in 1946 to Truman advising him to contain Communist expansion. Told Truman that if the Soviets couldn't expand, their Communism would eventually fall apart, and that Communism could be beaten without going to war.

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George Kennan

The man who wrote the Long Telegram

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Containment

The idea that Communism should be contained from spreading any further

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Iron Curtain

The figurative curtain across Europe splitting it into democratic east and communist west

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Truman Doctrine

1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey

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Greece and Turkey

The locations where the US first tried to stop the spread of communism by giving $400 million in economic and military aid to stabilize the countries and keep the appeal of communism down

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Atomic Energy Commission, National Security Council, Central Intelligence Agency

New national security bodies immune from democratic oversight would gather intelligence to serve the Truman Doctrine

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Marshall Plan

A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)

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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

a 1948 agreement that established an international forum for negotiating mutual reductions in trade restrictions to help non-communist countries

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Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution

Japanese people renounce and will forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. Right to belligerence is lost.

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Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift

Berlin is blocked in by the SU not allowing any resources in but the other Allied countries fly resources in until the SU gives up

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NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

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Warsaw Pact

The Soviet Union's version of NATO

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Mao Zedong

Leader of the Communist party in China

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Taiwan

The island that the republic of china fled to after being ousted by the communists

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NSC-68

National Securtiy Council memo #68 US "strive for victory" in cold war, pressed for offensive and a gross increase ($37 bil) in defense spending, determined US foreign policy for the next 20-30 yrs

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Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

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SEATO, CENTO

Treaty organizations that were similar to NATO but in other parts of the world

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Walter Lippmann

Discredited the "ideological crusade" of the cold war saying it would ruin the US

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Decolonization

The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.

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"Hearts and Minds"

Among other things, the Cold War was an ideological struggle, a battle, in a popular phrase of the 1950s, for the "hearts and minds" of people throughout the world.

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Militant Liberty

The code name that national security agencies used to encourage Hollywood to make anticommunist movies

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Jackson Pollock, John Cage, George Balanchine

Anticommunist artists where their work was used to promote the life and freedom of the US around the world. Painter, Music, and Dance

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Abstract Expression

Pollock's art style that approaches art through an abstract and not before seen view

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Totalitarianism

A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

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McCarran Internal Security Act

Banned totalitarians from entering the US

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Universal Declaration of Rights

The U.N's proposal that was split into 2 parts, almost every coutnry signed except the U.S never signed the Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights part

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John Foster Dulles

Secretary of State, opposed anything affirming human rights in the U.N due to the fear they would investigate America with its segregation

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Demobilization

Sending troops home and not having them on standby, occurred rapidly after World War II under Truman

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Fair Deal

An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.

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Operation Dixie

Failed effort by the CIO after World War II to unionize southern workers, especially in textile factories. Generally did not do well

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Postwar strike wave

Inflation soared and nearly 5 million workers walked off their jobs for wage increases. Even hollywood shut down

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Midterm Election of 1946

Unhappy with inflation and strikes, voters were in a conservative mood in the fall of 1946 when they elected Republican majorities in both houses of Congress.

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Taft Hartley Act of 1947

Reversed some of the gains labor had made in the past decade allowing for the president to suspend strikes and banning sympathy stikes and secondary boycotts among more

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Jackie Robinson

The first black player in the mlb, was very good and brought to light the issue of segregation

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To Secure These Rights

Report issued by the Commission on Civil Rights, condemned racial inequality in the U.S and called on the fed gov to abolish segregation

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Executive Order 9981

Desegregated the armed forces

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Election of 1948

Truman (Dem) vs Wallace (Progressive) vs Dewey (Republican) vs Thurmond (States' Rights), Truman won

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McCarthyism

The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.

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House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

A congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War II.

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Hollywood Ten

Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood

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Blacklist

The idea that those accused of communist ideas / support in Hollywood couldn't work anywhere

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Loyalty Review System

In 1947, less than two weeks after announcing the Truman Doctrine, the president established a loyalty review system in which government employees were required to demonstrate their patriotism without being allowed to confront accusers or, in some cases, knowing the charges against them.

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Whittaker Chambers

Confessed to HUAC that Alger Hiss gave him government documents, helped Nixon reach fame indirectly through Nixon's prosecution of Hiss

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Alger Hiss

A state department employee accused of communism and brought before HUAC, sentenced for perjury for 5 years, Nixon gained fame from this trial

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Richard Nixon

On HUAC and Vice President under Eisenhower; Gained fame through his HUAC attack on Hiss

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Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

A Jewish couple was accused and executed for delivering nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union

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Voice of America

1948; This government agency was created to make radio (and later TV) broadcasts of news and entertainment into foreign countries, especially those controlled by communists. Accused of communism by McCarthy

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Army-McCarthy HEarings

Televised hearings where McCarthy attacked the Army and he was shown as a bully, ending his career

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Joseph Welch

The Army's chief lawyer in the Army-McCarthy hearings, said "Have you no sense of decency, sir?"

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Loyalty Oaths

Truman orders background checks on 3 millon federal employees, and loyalty oaths were demanded, especially from teachers. Many citizens feared that communist spies were undermining the government.

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Dennis v. United States

Upheld the jailing of Communist Party leaders even though the charges were based n beliefs not actions

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Conformity

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. Very prevalent in the US during the red scare as any non-conformity would be seen as bad and communist

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McCarran Internal Security Bill of 1950

Required that "subversive" groups register with the government, vetoed but the president's vetoed overturned

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McCarran Walter Act of 1952

Immigration law kept quotas in place and authorized the deportation of immigrants. It was vetoed but congress passed over the veto

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Whom Shall We Welcome

Called to replace the quotes based on national origin and adopt a more flexible system

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Operation Wetback

Program which apprehended and returned some one million illegal immigrants to Mexico

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Adlai Stevenson / John Sparkman

Democratic presidential ticket in 1952 who didn't care for Racial issues

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Golden Age of Capitalism

A period of eco expansion, stable prices, and low unemployment until 1973

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White and Blue Collar Workers

White collar workers outnumbered blue collar works for the first time in history

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Suburbia

The residential districts or suburbs outside the boundaries of a city or town. Dramatically increased in size after WW2.

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Levittown

Towns in which houses were built on an assembly line. The houses were cheap and all families could afford them. Made by the Levitt Brothers, massively increased the size of suburbia

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Centerless western cities

Had no downtown or city center instead being a connection of residential neighborhoods by roads

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Consumerism

the protection or promotion of the interests of consumers.

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Television

A commodity that almost every family owned at that point became the main source of enterntianment

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Shelley v Kramer

A 1948 Supreme Court ecision that outlawed restrictive covenants on the occupancy of josing developments by African Americans, Asian Americans, and other minorities. Because the Court decision did not actually prohibit racial discrimination in housing, unfiar practices against minority groups continued until passafe of the Fair Housing Act in 1968.

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McGhee v Sipes

???

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Housing Act of 1948

Constructed more than 800,000 units of public housing but only for the very very poor

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Urban Renewal

Tore down run-down inner city areas and built new buildings, forced people out to either suburbs (for white ppl) or slums (for black ppl not allowed in the suburbs)

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Billy Graham

Protestant evangelist that used radio and TV to spread a religious anti-communist idea

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Protestant-Catholic-Jew

William Herberg's book, commented on new religious tolerance of the times, law of interest in doctrine, religious membership became source of identity of socialization

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Capitalism and Freedom

By Milton Friedman, identified the free market as the necessary foundation for individual liberty.

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New conservatives

members of the "radical right," wanted victory over communism, not just containment; advocated a return to traditional moral standards

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Ideas Have Consequences

By Richard Weaver; stated that the US was losing its morals and called for a return to a civilization based on values grounded in the Christian tradition

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Dwight Eisenhower

WWII war hero turned president

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Checkers Speech

A speech by Nixon to get him out of trouble for using campaign money personally

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Modern Republicanism

President Eisenhower's views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.

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Sputnik

First satellite, launched by Russia, used as propaganda against the U.S

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National Defense Education Act

The act that was passed in response to Sputnik; it provided an opportunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.

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Social Contract

The idea that unions would tone down their demands and in return companies would always accept union demands, fell apart quickly

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Hydrogen Bomb

A much much stronger bomb than the nuke

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Massive Retaliation

The Idea that any attack no matter how small would be met with nuclear retalitaion

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Brinkmanship

The idea that the world was always on the edge of nuclear war

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Mutually Assured Destruction

MAD; The idea that if a country is nuked the attacker will be nuked back, both will be wiped off the face of the planet

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Duck and Cover

Advice on how to survive the nuke, most likely wouldnt have worked

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Peaceful Coexistence

Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.

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Hungarian Uprising

Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations demanding non-communist parties be legalized; turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout the country

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Rollback

A strategy that called for liberating countries that were under Soviet dominion.

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U-2 Spy Plane shot down

A U-2 spy plane over the S.U was shot down, created a freeze in the cold war following the thaw of Peaceful coexistence

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Third World

The term for countries on neither the east nor west side of the war

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Nehru, Nkrumah, Ho Chi minh

Leaders that called the decolonization of their countries

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Guzman, Mossadegh

Socialist leaders that were assassinated by the CIA to set up authoritarian governments friendly to the U.S

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1956 Suez Crisis

Britain and France allied with Israel in making moves at Egyptian-held territory in this conflict.

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Eisenhower Doctrine

Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country

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First Indochina War

1946-1954. was fought in French Indochina between French and Vietnamese. End result was division of Vietnam at Geneva Conference. U.S funded 4/5ths of the War

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Geneva Peace Talks

caused Vietnam to divide at the 17th parallel

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Ngo Dinh Diem

South Vietnam's president and the U.S's ally; Called off the election because he would have lost

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National Liberation Front

Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under Northern rule and aided what group of communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in the south. Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.

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Shah of Iran

Instated by the U.S when Iran tried to socialize its oil, brutal

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Hans Morgenthau

One of the most influential exponents of a realist approach to international politics

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