KINE240: Ch. 11, Gastrointestinal System

studied byStudied by 11 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

gastrointestinal (GI) tract

1 / 235

Tags and Description

236 Terms

1

gastrointestinal (GI) tract

digestive system, also called the alimentary system

New cards
2

accessory organs

organs whose functions are related to digestion without being part of the direct process (pancreas, gallbladder, liver)

New cards
3

upper GI tract

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach

New cards
4

lower GI tract

duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, anus

New cards
5

large intestine

colon, absorbs remaining water and vitamins

New cards
6

ileum

small intestine

New cards
7

liver

secretion of bile, storage of nutrients (glucose is stored as glycogen), etc.

New cards
8

gallbladder

storage and concentration of bile

New cards
9

or/o

mouth

New cards
10

stomat/o

mouth

New cards
11

stomatosis

condition of the mouth

New cards
12

dent/o

tooth

New cards
13

odont/o

tooth

New cards
14

odontalgia

tooth pain

New cards
15

gingiv/o

gum

New cards
16

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

New cards
17

gingivostomatitis

inflammation of the gums and mouth

New cards
18

chyme

mixture of digestive chemicals and food, enters the small intestine

New cards
19

gloss/o

tongue

New cards
20

lingu/o

tongue

New cards
21

glossopathy

disease of the tongue

New cards
22

hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

cranial nerve that innervates the tongue

New cards
23

esophag/o

esophagus

New cards
24

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

New cards
25

gastr/o

stomach

New cards
26

gastropexy

surgical fixation of the stomach (sutured to the abdominal wall or diaphragm)

New cards
27

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

heart burn as a result of hiatal hernia

New cards
28

hiatal hernia

part of the stomach protrudes up into the chest through the diaphragm

New cards
29

duodenum

small intestine, site of most chemical breakdown and mixing

New cards
30

jejunum

small intestine, site of nutrient absorption

New cards
31

ileum

small intestine, site of nutrient absorption

New cards
32

cecum

component of the large intestine that is attached to the appendix

New cards
33

sections of the colon

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

New cards
34

enter/o

intestine (most often used to refer to the small intestine) n

New cards
35

gastroenterology

study of the stomach and intestines

New cards
36

dysentery

diarrhea

New cards
37

duoden/o

duodenum (literally, “12”)

New cards
38

gastroduodenoscope

instrument used to view the stomach and duodenum

New cards
39

jejun/o

jejunum (literally, “empty”)

New cards
40

jejunotomy

incision into the jejunum

New cards
41

ile/o

ileum (literally, “groin”)

New cards
42

ileotomy

incision into the jejunum

New cards
43

LI

large intestine

New cards
44

col/o

colon

New cards
45

colon/o

colon

New cards
46

colorectal carcinoma

cancer of the colon and rectum

New cards
47

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon (last portion of the colon before the rectum)

New cards
48

rect/o

rectum (literally, “straight”)

New cards
49

rectoplasty

surgical reconstruction of the rectum

New cards
50

an/o

anus (sphincter or muscle that allows for the passage of feces in defecation, literally, “ring”)

New cards
51

proct/o

anus and rectum

New cards
52

pancreas

houses enzymes to break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

New cards
53

sial/o

saliva

New cards
54

sialadenitis

inflammation of the salivary gland

New cards
55

sialorrhea

excessive saliva, also called hypersalivation

New cards
56

bil/i

bile

New cards
57

chol/e

bile

New cards
58

cholelith

gall stone

New cards
59

biligenesis

formation of bile

New cards
60

cholesterol stone

yellow-green stone

New cards
61

pigment stone

smaller and darker than cholesterol stones, made of bilirubin from breakdown of heme

New cards
62

peritone/o

peritoneum, layer that surrounds the GI organs

New cards
63

peritoneotomy

incision of the peritoneum

New cards
64

parietal peritoneum

lines the inner surface of the body wall, continuous with the visceral peritoneum

New cards
65

visceral peritoneum

outer lining of the digestive tract, also called the serosa

New cards
66

mesenteries

fused, double sheets of peritoneal membrane

New cards
67

abdomin/o

abdomen

New cards
68

celi/o

abdomen

New cards
69

lapar/o

abdomen

New cards
70

abdominocentesis

process of inserting a small gauge needle into the abdomen to evaluate if fluid is present and obtain a sample for further testing

New cards
71

laparoscope

device to view the abdomen

New cards
72

cyst/o

cistern (storage tank), gallbladder

New cards
73

cholecystogram

written record of the gallbladder

New cards
74

cholecystectomy

removal of the gallbladder

New cards
75

doch/o

duct

New cards
76

choledocholithiasis

gallstone in the bile dict

New cards
77

hepat/o

liver

New cards
78

hepatic/o

liver

New cards
79

hepatitis A, B, C

inflammation of the liver (caused by viruses, A, B, C)

New cards
80

pancreat/o

pancreas

New cards
81

stomatodynia

mouth pain

New cards
82

esophagalgia

esophagus pain

New cards
83

gastralgia

stomach pain

New cards
84

cholecystalgia

gallbladder pain

New cards
85

dyspepsia

pain, general nausea, indigestion

New cards
86

emesis

vomiting

New cards
87

diarrhea

loose, watery stool

New cards
88

constipation

difficulty passing stool (literally, “to crowd together”)

New cards
89

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

New cards
90

jaundice

gallbladder and liver dysfunction (yellowing of skin and eyes, increased bilirubin in the blood, from French for “yellow” )

New cards
91

hyperbilirubinemia

increased bilirubin in the blood, observed in jaundice

New cards
92

dentalgia

tooth pain

New cards
93

odontalgia

tooth pain

New cards
94

odontodynia

tooth pain

New cards
95

aerodontalgia

tooth pain due to exposure to air

New cards
96

gingivalgia

gum pain

New cards
97

gingivostomatitis

inflammation of the gum and mouth

New cards
98

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

New cards
99

stomatodynia

mouth pain

New cards
100

aphagia

note eating due to mouth or tooth pain

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 89 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1109 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard122 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)