KINE240: Ch. 11, Gastrointestinal System

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gastrointestinal (GI) tract

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gastrointestinal (GI) tract

digestive system, also called the alimentary system

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accessory organs

organs whose functions are related to digestion without being part of the direct process (pancreas, gallbladder, liver)

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upper GI tract

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach

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lower GI tract

duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, anus

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large intestine

colon, absorbs remaining water and vitamins

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ileum

small intestine

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liver

secretion of bile, storage of nutrients (glucose is stored as glycogen), etc.

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gallbladder

storage and concentration of bile

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or/o

mouth

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stomat/o

mouth

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stomatosis

condition of the mouth

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dent/o

tooth

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odont/o

tooth

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odontalgia

tooth pain

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gingiv/o

gum

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gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

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gingivostomatitis

inflammation of the gums and mouth

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chyme

mixture of digestive chemicals and food, enters the small intestine

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gloss/o

tongue

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lingu/o

tongue

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glossopathy

disease of the tongue

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hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

cranial nerve that innervates the tongue

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esophag/o

esophagus

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esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

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gastr/o

stomach

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gastropexy

surgical fixation of the stomach (sutured to the abdominal wall or diaphragm)

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gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

heart burn as a result of hiatal hernia

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hiatal hernia

part of the stomach protrudes up into the chest through the diaphragm

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duodenum

small intestine, site of most chemical breakdown and mixing

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jejunum

small intestine, site of nutrient absorption

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ileum

small intestine, site of nutrient absorption

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cecum

component of the large intestine that is attached to the appendix

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sections of the colon

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

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enter/o

intestine (most often used to refer to the small intestine) n

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gastroenterology

study of the stomach and intestines

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dysentery

diarrhea

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duoden/o

duodenum (literally, “12”)

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gastroduodenoscope

instrument used to view the stomach and duodenum

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jejun/o

jejunum (literally, “empty”)

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jejunotomy

incision into the jejunum

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ile/o

ileum (literally, “groin”)

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ileotomy

incision into the jejunum

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LI

large intestine

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col/o

colon

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colon/o

colon

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colorectal carcinoma

cancer of the colon and rectum

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sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon (last portion of the colon before the rectum)

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rect/o

rectum (literally, “straight”)

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rectoplasty

surgical reconstruction of the rectum

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an/o

anus (sphincter or muscle that allows for the passage of feces in defecation, literally, “ring”)

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proct/o

anus and rectum

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pancreas

houses enzymes to break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

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sial/o

saliva

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sialadenitis

inflammation of the salivary gland

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sialorrhea

excessive saliva, also called hypersalivation

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bil/i

bile

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chol/e

bile

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cholelith

gall stone

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biligenesis

formation of bile

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cholesterol stone

yellow-green stone

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pigment stone

smaller and darker than cholesterol stones, made of bilirubin from breakdown of heme

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peritone/o

peritoneum, layer that surrounds the GI organs

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peritoneotomy

incision of the peritoneum

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parietal peritoneum

lines the inner surface of the body wall, continuous with the visceral peritoneum

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visceral peritoneum

outer lining of the digestive tract, also called the serosa

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mesenteries

fused, double sheets of peritoneal membrane

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abdomin/o

abdomen

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celi/o

abdomen

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lapar/o

abdomen

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abdominocentesis

process of inserting a small gauge needle into the abdomen to evaluate if fluid is present and obtain a sample for further testing

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laparoscope

device to view the abdomen

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cyst/o

cistern (storage tank), gallbladder

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cholecystogram

written record of the gallbladder

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cholecystectomy

removal of the gallbladder

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doch/o

duct

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choledocholithiasis

gallstone in the bile dict

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hepat/o

liver

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hepatic/o

liver

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hepatitis A, B, C

inflammation of the liver (caused by viruses, A, B, C)

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pancreat/o

pancreas

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stomatodynia

mouth pain

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esophagalgia

esophagus pain

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gastralgia

stomach pain

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cholecystalgia

gallbladder pain

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