making babies exam 2

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what is the leading cause of maternal and infant illness/death?

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what is the leading cause of maternal and infant illness/death?

preeclampsia and eclampsia

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what is the difference between preeclampsia and eclampsia?

eclampsia includes seizures

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if a mother is Rh-, what may she be given at 28 weeks and within 72 hours after delivery to prevent Rh+ antigens from attacking any future pregnancies?

RhoGam (shot)

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placental previa

when the placenta is covering a part of or the entire cervical opening

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symptoms of placental previa

painless, heavy bleeding around 28 weeks

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macrosomia

large baby due to excess glucose as a result of a mother who has gestational diabetes

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placental abruption

when the placenta is prematurely separated from the uterine wall

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symptoms of placental abruption

sudden onset of abdominal pain and uterine contractions, anytime after 20 weeks gestation

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gravid

pregnant

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primigravida

first pregnancy

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linea nigra

line down the umbilicus

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Braxton hicks contractions

practice for real contractions, mild, and irregular

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goodells sign

softening of the cervix

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Chadwicks sign

discoloration of the cervix

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what is hyperemesis graviduram?

morning sickness throughout the entire pregnancy, including extreme nausea and vomiting, which can lead to severe weight loss

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what is quickening and when can both first time and second time mothers usually experience it?

when the mother can feel fetal movement first time=around 18-20 weeks second=16 weeks(know what to expect)

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what is the role of progesterone?

progesterone thickens the endometrium and suppresses the development of any more follicles

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when is the second trimester?

14-28 weeks

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when is the third trimester?

28-40 weeks

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when is the first trimester?

LMP-14 weeks

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when does pregnancy begin?

after implantation

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what has an affect on whether a mother will have a multifetal pregnancy?

her family history

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are monozygotic twins identical or fraternal?

identical

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how many sperm are there in monozygotic twins? eggs?

one sperm one egg

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are dizygotic twins identical or fraternal?

fraternal

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how many sperm are in dizygotic twins?eggs?

-two sperm -two eggs

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which can include one boy and one girl, monozygotic or dizygotic?

dizygotic

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how much does the mothers oxygen consumption increase during pregnancy?

15-20%

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what is vanishing twin syndrome?

when one twin is reabsorbed into the placenta early in the pregnancy

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what is twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome?

when there is a huge difference in the fluid being shared by twins, one becomes a donor and the other a recipient

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what type of twins do twin-to-twin transfusions take place in?

monozygotic

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what is a donor fetus?

the fetus that receives less fluid during twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, they typically have a higher prenatal death rate

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what is a recipient fetus?

the fetus that gets more fluid during twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, typically have excessive blood flow

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what is the treatment for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome?

terminate one of the pregnancies via layer surgery

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what causes 75% of triplet pregnancies to occur?

ARTs

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what is open adoption?

direct, ongoing contact between baby, adoptive parents and birth parents

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what is semi-open adoption?

may have some contact or photos but not a completely open adoption

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what is a closed adoption?

birth parents will have no contact with child or adoptive parents

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up to how many weeks in abortion allowed?

12 weeks

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how many weeks are medicine abortion options allowed for?

10 weeks

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are abortions allowed after 27 weeks?

yes, if it is being done to save the mothers life

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who used the name Jane Roe?

Norma McCorvey

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when was Roe v. Wade overturned?

June 24, 2022

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what are trigger bans?

laws that were put into place to become active once Roe v. Wade was overturned to make abortion illegal

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what non-surgical method is used for abortions and how does it work?

RU486 (mifepristone), medicine that blocks progesterone, leading to the break down of the endometrium -97% effective -works within 2-24 hours

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what is methotrexate?

an oral medication that can be used up until 7 weeks for aborting a pregnancy, teratogenic to embryo (interrupts development)

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what is taken with methotrexate (MTX) and RU486 (mifepristone)?

misoprostol

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up to how many weeks can surgical abortions be performed?

12 weeks

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what is a manual vacuum aspiration (MVA)?

surgical form of abortion method that can only be done if it is not your first pregnancy since the cervix will become too tight

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what two types of surgical abortions can be done in the first trimester?

manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and Dilation and curettage (D&C)

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dilation curettage

scraps pregnancy away, sucks it out

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what is used to remove a first trimester miscarriage?

dilation and curettage (D&E)

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what does misoprostol do?

causes cramping and bleeding to empty the uterus during an abortion

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second trimester abortion options

dilation and evacuation (D&E)

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dilation and evacuation (D&E)

larger tool, vacuum -can be done during 12-24 weeks of pregnancy

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why are fetal assessments done?

to assess fetal well-being during pregnancy

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what are the 4 types of fetal assessments?

-fetal kick count -non-stress test -biophysical profile -contraction stress test

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what is being assessed in fetal assessments?

heart rate, movement and contractions

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what should the fetal heart rate be?

110-160 BPM

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what does good fetal movement indicate?

sufficient fetal oxygenation

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what is a fetal doppler?

tool used with gel in ultrasounds to detect heart rate

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what does a tocodynamometer measure?

frequency and duration of contractions

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how many kicks should you feel in a fetal kick count in 2 hours?

10

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what will be done next if a fetal kick count is failed?

non-stress test

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what does a non-stress test do?

measures heart rate in response to fetal movement, placed on an electronic fetal monitor (EFM) to measure contractions and heart rate for 20-30 minutes

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what may make the non-stress test inaccurate?

sleeping baby, baby being less than 32 weeks, or mother had some sort of sedation that got to the baby

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what is the next step if the non-stress test in non-reactive?

biophysical profile

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what warrants a reactive non-stress test?

2 accelerations of heart rate in 20 minutes

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what is a biophysical profile?

ultrasound that measures heart rate, movement, muscle tone, amniotic fluid and breathing

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how is a biophysical profile scores?

point system out of either 8 or 10 -each factor is worth two points

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what is something that can be seen on a biophysical profile that may result in a necessary delivery?

lack of amniotic fluid

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what is a contraction stress test?

used to check for fetus's ability to withstand labor by inducing contractions

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what does a positive contraction stress test mean? what is the next step?

there was a decrease in fetal heart rate during the contractions -next step would be a c-section

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what does a negative contraction stress test mean?

the baby is normal and is able to withstand labor contractions

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what are the goals of prenatal testing?

maximize maternal and fetal health

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when are prenatal visits supposed to take place?

-first one at 8-10 weeks -monthly for 1st and 2nd trimester -every two weeks until 36 weeks -weekly 36 weeks-EDD

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what do maternal health test screen for?

diabetes, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis

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what does routine blood work determine? (around 8-10 weeks)

blood type, Rh factor, anemia, thyroid function and rubella immunity

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what does a routine blood test determine? (at 24-28 weeks)

gestational diabetes screening

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what is look for in maternal urine screening that takes place at every prenatal visit?

glucose for diabetes protein for pre-eclampsia ketones for dehydration white blood cells for infections

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what is looked for at 36 weeks at during the routine maternal vaginal rectal test?

Group B streptococcus (GBS) -if found, mother will be given antibiotics during labor

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what are the two types of optional prenatal tests?

screening and diagnostic

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what do neural tube defects affect?

spine or brain

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what is folic acid?

supplement taken to prevent neural defects like spina bifida and anencephaly

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