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1

equation for density of gas

p= PM/RT

p= density of gas (g x L^-1)

P= pressure (atm)

M= molar mass (g)

R= ideal gas constant [0.0821 (L x atm/mol x K)]

T= temperature (K)

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2

diatomic ions

hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, bromine, chlorine, iodine, fluorine

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3

allotropes

molecules with different formulas whose atoms are all of the same element (ex. O2 and O3; S6, S8, and S12)

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4

charge of NH4==+== (ammonium)

+1

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5

charge of H3O==+== (hydronium)

+1

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6

charge of Hg22+ (mercury I)

+1

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7

charge of H2PO3==-== (dihydrogen phosphite)

-1

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8

charge of H2PO4==-== (dihydrogen phosphate)

-1

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9

charge of HCO3==-== (hydrogen carbonate)

-1

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10

charge of HSO3==-== (hydrogen sulfite)

-1

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11

charge of HSO4==-== (hydrogen sulfate)

-1

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12

charge of NO2==-== (nitrite)

-1

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13

charge of NO3==-== (nitrate)

-1

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14

charge of OH==-== (hyrdoxide)

-1

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15

charge of CH3COO==-== (acetate)

-1

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16

charge of CrO2==-== (chromite)

-1

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17

charge of CN==-== (cyanide)

-1

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18

charge of CNO==-== (cyanate)

-1

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19

charge of CNS==-== (thiocyanate)

-1

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20

charge of MnO4==-== (permanganate)

-1

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21

charge of ClO==-== (hypochlorite)

-1

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22

charge of ClO2==-== (chlorite)

-1

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23

charge of ClO3==-== (chlorate)

-1

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24

charge of ClO4==-== (perchlorate)

-1

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25

charge of BrO==-== (hypobromite)

-1

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26

charge of BrO2==-== (bromite)

-1

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27

charge of BrO3==-== (bromate)

-1

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28

charge of BrO4==-== (perbromate)

-1

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29

charge of IO==-== (hypoiodite)

-1

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30

charge of IO2==-== (iodite)

-1

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31

charge of IO3==-== (iodate)

-1

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32

charge of IO4==-== (periodate)

-1

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33

charge of N3==-== (azide)

-1

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34

charge of HPO32- (hydrogen phosphite)

-2

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35

charge of HPO42- (hydrogen phosphate)

-2

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36

charge of CO32- (carbonate)

-2

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37

charge of SO32- (sulfite)

-2

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38

charge of SO42- (sulfate)

-2

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39

charge of S2O32- (thiosulfate)

-2

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40

charge of C2O42- (oxalate)

-2

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41

charge of CrO42- (chromate)

-2

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42

charge of Cr2O72- (dichromate)

-2

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43

charge of O22- (peroxide)

-2

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44

charge of S22- (disulfide)

-2

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45

charge of O2- (oxide)

-2

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46

charge of S2- (sulfide)

-2

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47

charge of PO43- (phosphate)

-3

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48

charge of AsO33- (arsenite)

-3

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49

charge of AsO43- (arsenate)

-3

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50

charge of N3- (nitride)

-3

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51

SI unit: terra

10^12

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52

SI unit: giga

10^9

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53

SI unit: mega

10^6

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54

SI unit: kilo

10^3

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55

SI unit: centi

10^-2

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56

SI unit: milli

10^-3

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57

SI unit: micro

10^-6

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58

SI unit: nano

10^-9

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59

p-orbitals have __ shapes/p-orbitals per shell

3

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60

d-orbitals have __ shapes/p-orbitals per shell

5

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61

f-orbitals have __ shapes/p-orbitals per shell

7

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62

quantum numbers formula

n, l, ml, ms

n= principal; the energy level/distance from nucleus; range is 1-infinity

l= azimuthal; the type of orbital it is (l=0=s, l=1=p, l=2=d, l=3=f); range is 0, 1, 2, or 3

ml= magnetic; shares which p, d, or f orbital you have (oriental space); range is [-l -→ +l]

ms= spin; shares the electrons spin; range is either +1/2 or -1/2

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paramagnetic

has unpaired electrons, attracted to magnets, odd or even number of electrons (ex. O2)

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64

diamagnetic

has no unpaired electrons, repelled by magnets, even number of electrons (ex. N2)

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65

equation for the energy of a photon

E photon= hf= hc/w

h= Planck’s constant= 6.63 x 10^-34 J x sec

f= photon’s frequency= c/w

c= speed of light= 3.0 x 10^8 m/sec

w= photon’s wavelength

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66

kinetic energy of electrons equation

E photon- work function

work function= the minimum amount of energy required to ionize the electrons

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67

types of compounds

ionic, molecular, network covalent, and metallic

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68

features of ionic compounds

high melting points, high boiling points, brittle, hard, held together by ionic interactions (lattice energy), examples include NaCl and MgO

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69

features of molecular compounds

low melting points, do not conduct electricity, held together by IMFs, examples include H2O and Cl-Cl and CH2

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70

features of network covalent compounds

high melting points, high boiling points, hard, do not conduct electricity, held together by a network of covalent bonds, examples include C (diamond and graphite) and SiO2 (quartz)

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71

features of metallic compounds

variable hardness and melting points, conducts electricity, conducts heat, lustrous (shiny), malleable, ductile, held together by metallic bonding, examples include Fe and Mg

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72

lattice energy equation

[(cation charge) x (anion charge)]/bond distance

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73

if there are two “things” surrounding the atom…

electron domain: 2

hybridization: sp

bond angles: 180 degrees

electron-domain geometry: linear

non-bonding electron pairs: 0

molecular geometry: linear

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74

if there are three “things” surrounding the atom…

electron domain: 3

hybridization: sp2

bond angles: 120 degrees

electron-domain geometry: trigonal planar

non-bonding electron pairs: 0 or 1

molecular geometry: trigonal planar or bent

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if there are four “things” surrounding the atom…

electron domain: 4

hybridization: sp3

bond angles: 109.5 degrees

electron-domain geometry: tetrahedral

non-bonding electron pairs: 0, 1, or 2

molecular geometry: tetrahedral, trigonal pyramid, bent

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76

if there are five “things” surrounding the atom…

electron domain: 5

hybridization: sp3d

bond angles: 90, 120, or 180 degrees

electron-domain geometry: trigonal bipyramid

non-bonding electron pairs: 0, 1, 2, or 3

molecular geometry: trigonal bipyramid, see-saw, t-shaped, linear

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77

if there are six “things” surrounding the atom…

electron domain: 6

hybridization: sp3d2

bond angles: 90 degrees

electron-domain geometry: octahedral

non-bonding electron pairs: 0, 1, or 2

molecular geometry: octahedral, square pyramid, square planar

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78

features to know about alkali metals

group 1 on PT, low ionization energies, very reactive with water, readily form compounds

reaction with water: M (s) + H2O (l) -→ MOH (aq) + 1/2H2 (g); VERY exothermic reaction

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79

features to know about alkaline earth metals

group 2 on PT, low ionization energies (not as low as alkali metals), reacts with H2O (not as violently as alkali metals), becomes more reactive with H20 as you go down the group

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80

features to know about halogens

group 7A on PT, high electronegativities and electron affinities, easily reduced because they really want an extra electron, highly reactive with metals, good oxidizing agents

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81

features to know about noble gases

group 8 on PT, unreactive gases, they have a full octet so are happy

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82

features to know about transition metals

found in the d-block of PT, often form brightly colored compounds, can have multiple oxidation states

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83

features to know about oxygen group/chalcogens

group 6A on PT, two forms of molecular oxygen: O2 and O3, metals like to react with oxygen to form metal oxides

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84

boyle’s law

as pressure decreases, volume increases and vice versa

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85

charles’ law

as volume decreases, temperature decreases; as volume increases, temperature increases

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86

avogadro’s law

as volume decreases, the number of moles decreases; as volume increases, the number of moles increases

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87

combined gas law

P1 x V1/n1 x T1=P2 x V2/ n2 x T2

P= pressure

V= volume

n= number of moles

T= temperature

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88

ideal gas law

PV=nRT

P= pressure (atm)

V= volume (L)

n= number of moles

R= ideal gas constant= 0.0821 L x atm/ mol x K

T= temperature (Kelvins)

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89

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

you cannot simultaneously know everything about an electron’s location and momentum

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90

dalton’s law

total pressure inside a container filled with multiple gases = sum of the gases’ individual pressures

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91

kinetic energy equation

(1/2 x mass) x (velocity)^2

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92

graham’s law

effusion rate 1/effusion rate 2= sqaure root of mw2/mw1

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93

unit cells: simple cubic

only one total atom inside the cell

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94

unit cells: body centered cubic

two atoms per cell

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95

unit cells: face centered cubic

four atoms per cell

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96

sublimation

solid -→ gas (endothermic, +deltaH; create disorder, +deltaS)

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melting (fusion)

solid -→ liquid (endothermic, +deltaH; create disorder, +deltaS)

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98

boiling (vaporization)

liquid -→ gas (endothermic, +deltaH; create disorder, +deltaS)

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99

deposition

gas -→ solid (exothermic, -deltaH; create order, -deltaS)

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100

condensation

gas -→ liquid (exothermic, -deltaH; create order, -deltaS)

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