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If you eat too much carbohydrate, it can be stored as fat.
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Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of DNA but not RNA?
A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules in
A cofactor is ______ and examples are _____.
a necessary part of some enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc
An enzyme is
a molecule, usually a protein, that speeds the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
DNA, RNA, and protein molecules can carry information because
they consist of sequences of building blocks.
An ATP molecule consists of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphates.
The enzyme catalase acts on the substrate
A metabolic pathway is a particular sequence of enzyme-controlled reactions.
In adipose tissue, fat molecules form when fatty acid molecules and glycerol join by hydrolysis.
The reactions of anaerobic respiration take place in the
A sequence of DNA 333 nucleotides long that is part of a gene encodes ___ amino acids.
Proteins are critical to metabolism because all proteins are enzymes.
What is the function of ATP molecules in living cells?
They hold energy from the oxidation of fuels in their high-energy phosphate bonds, and the energy is used in various cell processes.
A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes a portion of a protein of sequence
Transcription and translation differ in that
transcription produces RNA and translation produces protein.
During the anaerobic phase of respiration, pyruvic acid reacts to form glucose.
The metabolome includes
all of the small molecules that are part of metabolism
Humans require vitamins in their diets because these nutrients
act as cofactors.
A rate-limiting enzyme usually acts at the end of a metabolic pathway.
In dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate,
For each citric acid molecule that enters the citric acid cycle, 2 ATPs, 16 H atoms, and 4 CO2 molecules are produced.
In DNA replication, the two halves of the double helix part and enzymes place A, C, G, and U nucleotides opposite their complements, forming two double helices from one.
Which of the following best describes the interaction between an enzyme and its substrate?
Part of the enzyme temporarily binds part of the substrate molecule
In cellular respiration,
energy is released from molecules and is transferred to other molecules.
DNA transcribed to mRNA always begins with the sequence
Enzymes are proteins that promote specific chemical reactions.
Dehydration synthesis is catabolic and hydrolysis is anabolic.
Each individual has her or his own genetic code.
The genome sequences of different individuals are
about 99.9% alike
A cell may contain hundreds of different types of enzymes
Which of the following is an example of catabolism?
The breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
The synthesis of an ATP molecule requires two ADP molecules.
all of the answer choices are correct
A molecule that is common to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and connects these two pathways metabolically is
acetyl coenzyme A.
Which DNA sequence can encode the amino acid sequence ile-asp-ser-cys-his-tyr?
\n all of the answer choices are correct
Oxidation during cellular respiration differs from burning in that respiration
uses enzymes to lower the activation energy.
The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane.
An active site of an enzyme is
the part of an enzyme that combines with a product.
The basic steps of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are:
substrate and enzyme combine, forming an E-S complex. The reaction occurs, products are released, and the unchanged enzyme is released and recycled.
A molecule that carries energy in a form the cell can use is
A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes an mRNA of sequence
ATP is important to cellular processes because it
provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken.
In the DNA damage response
repair enzymes replace mismatched nucleotides in DNA.
A DNA molecule is a double helix in which A pairs with C and T pairs with G.
During DNA replication,
the DNA double helix comes apart where hydrogen bonds join base pairs, and new nucleotides are brought in, forming two double helices
Metabolism refers to all of the chemical reactions in a cell.
One reason that protein synthesis is important is that
enzymes are proteins and enzymes are essential to metabolism.
In the citric acid cycle
carbon dioxide is released.
The genetic code is the correspondence between DNA sequence and amino acid sequence of a protein.
Codons are part of
How many codons specify the twenty types of amino acids
The polymerase chain reaction is a lab version of
A different enzyme may catalyze the formation and the breakdown of the same molecule.
Oxidation forms chemical bonds.
compares the most variable parts of the genome for a variety of applications.
An active site is the part of a substrate molecule that binds an enzyme.
Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of RNA but not DNA?
Anabolic metabolism refers to
biochemical reactions that synthesize compounds.
Which of the following substances increases in abundance during cellular respiration?
Dehydration synthesis reactions _____, whereas hydrolysis reactions _____.
lose H2O to form bonds; use H2O to break bonds
A mutation can cause disease if
the DNA sequence changes so that one amino acid is substituted for another in a way that affects the encoded protein's functioning.
A chaperone protein
helps a protein to fold.
An example of an anabolic reaction is
many monosaccharides bonding, forming glycogen.
If one strand of DNA has the sequence TCAGGCTATTCCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is
Anaerobic respiration occurs in _____, whereas aerobic respiration occurs in ______.
cytoplasm without O2 required; mitochondria with O2 required
Releasing the energy in glucose molecules is an example of catabolism.
DNA and RNA differ in strandedness, type of sugar, and types of nitrogenous bases.
The name of an enzyme ends in
A DNA strand of ACTTCGCATG, when replicated, would yield a strand of the same sequence.
Copying DNA information into an mRNA molecule is called
are all of the above
A DNA sequence of CGCTTACGATTG would be transcribed into an RNA sequence of GCGAAUGCUAAC.
Oxidation of glucose is important because it releases energy.
Which of the following is true?
Much of the genome does not encode protein.
Catabolism refers to
breakdown of large molecules.
Energy is defined as
the capacity of matter to change.
The two strands of a DNA molecule have opposite orientation.
Arsenic poisoning harms the body by
interfering with cellular extraction of energy from glucose.
Genetic information is contained in protein molecules and is passed from one parent to another.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of enzymes?
They are most active at temperatures about 53 degrees C.
A peptide bond forms between
adjacent amino acids held on a ribosome and bound to tRNAs.
Transcription yields protein and translation produces RNA.