A&P Lab Chapt 4

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If you eat too much carbohydrate, it can be stored as fat.

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1
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If you eat too much carbohydrate, it can be stored as fat.

True

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2
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Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of DNA but not RNA?

Thymine

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3
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A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules in

glycolysis.

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4
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A cofactor is ______ and examples are _____.

a necessary part of some enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc

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An enzyme is

a molecule, usually a protein, that speeds the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.

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DNA, RNA, and protein molecules can carry information because

they consist of sequences of building blocks.

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An ATP molecule consists of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphates.

True

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8
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The enzyme catalase acts on the substrate

hydrogen peroxide.

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A metabolic pathway is a particular sequence of enzyme-controlled reactions.

\n   True

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10
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In adipose tissue, fat molecules form when fatty acid molecules and glycerol join by hydrolysis.

False

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11
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The reactions of anaerobic respiration take place in the

cytoplasm.

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12
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A sequence of DNA 333 nucleotides long that is part of a gene encodes ___ amino acids.

111

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13
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Proteins are critical to metabolism because all proteins are enzymes.

False

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14
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What is the function of ATP molecules in living cells?

They hold energy from the oxidation of fuels in their high-energy phosphate bonds, and the energy is used in various cell processes.

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Aerobic respiration

requires oxygen.

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16
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A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes a portion of a protein of sequence

leu-pro-arg-gly-ala

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Transcription and translation differ in that

transcription produces RNA and translation produces protein.

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18
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During the anaerobic phase of respiration, pyruvic acid reacts to form glucose.

False

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19
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The metabolome includes

all of the small molecules that are part of metabolism

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20
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Humans require vitamins in their diets because these nutrients

act as cofactors.

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21
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A rate-limiting enzyme usually acts at the end of a metabolic pathway.

False

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22
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In dehydration synthesis of a carbohydrate,

monosaccharides join.

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23
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For each citric acid molecule that enters the citric acid cycle, 2 ATPs, 16 H atoms, and 4 CO2 molecules are produced.

False

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In DNA replication, the two halves of the double helix part and enzymes place A, C, G, and U nucleotides opposite their complements, forming two double helices from one.

False

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Which of the following best describes the interaction between an enzyme and its substrate?

Part of the enzyme temporarily binds part of the substrate molecule

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26
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In cellular respiration,

energy is released from molecules and is transferred to other molecules.

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DNA transcribed to mRNA always begins with the sequence

AUG

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Enzymes are proteins that promote specific chemical reactions.

True

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29
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Dehydration synthesis is catabolic and hydrolysis is anabolic.

False

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30
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Each individual has her or his own genetic code.

False

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The genome sequences of different individuals are

about 99.9% alike

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A cell may contain hundreds of different types of enzymes

True

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Which of the following is an example of catabolism?

The breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.

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The synthesis of an ATP molecule requires two ADP molecules.

False

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Anaerobic respiration

all of the answer choices are correct

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A molecule that is common to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and connects these two pathways metabolically is

acetyl coenzyme A.

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37
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Which DNA sequence can encode the amino acid sequence ile-asp-ser-cys-his-tyr?

\n   all of the answer choices are correct

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38
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Oxidation during cellular respiration differs from burning in that respiration

uses enzymes to lower the activation energy.

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The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane.

True

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An active site of an enzyme is

the part of an enzyme that combines with a product.

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41
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The basic steps of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are:

substrate and enzyme combine, forming an E-S complex. The reaction occurs, products are released, and the unchanged enzyme is released and recycled.

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42
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A molecule that carries energy in a form the cell can use is

ATP.

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43
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A DNA sequence AACGGTGCACCACGG encodes an mRNA of sequence

UUGCCACGUGGUGCC

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ATP is important to cellular processes because it

provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken.

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In the DNA damage response

repair enzymes replace mismatched nucleotides in DNA.

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46
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A DNA molecule is a double helix in which A pairs with C and T pairs with G.

False

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47
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During DNA replication,

the DNA double helix comes apart where hydrogen bonds join base pairs, and new nucleotides are brought in, forming two double helices

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48
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Metabolism refers to all of the chemical reactions in a cell.

True

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One reason that protein synthesis is important is that

enzymes are proteins and enzymes are essential to metabolism.

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50
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In the citric acid cycle

carbon dioxide is released.

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51
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The genetic code is the correspondence between DNA sequence and amino acid sequence of a protein.

True

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52
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Codons are part of

mRNA.

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53
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How many codons specify the twenty types of amino acids

61

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54
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The polymerase chain reaction is a lab version of

DNA replication.

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A different enzyme may catalyze the formation and the breakdown of the same molecule.

True

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Oxidation forms chemical bonds.

False

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DNA profiling

compares the most variable parts of the genome for a variety of applications.

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An active site is the part of a substrate molecule that binds an enzyme.

False

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59
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Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of RNA but not DNA?

\n   Uracil

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60
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Anabolic metabolism refers to

biochemical reactions that synthesize compounds.

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Which of the following substances increases in abundance during cellular respiration?

ATP

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62
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Dehydration synthesis reactions _____, whereas hydrolysis reactions _____.

lose H2O to form bonds; use H2O to break bonds

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63
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A mutation can cause disease if

the DNA sequence changes so that one amino acid is substituted for another in a way that affects the encoded protein's functioning.

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A chaperone protein

helps a protein to fold.

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An example of an anabolic reaction is

many monosaccharides bonding, forming glycogen.

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If one strand of DNA has the sequence TCAGGCTATTCCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is

AGTCCGATAAGGGC.

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Anaerobic respiration occurs in _____, whereas aerobic respiration occurs in ______.

cytoplasm without O2 required; mitochondria with O2 required

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Releasing the energy in glucose molecules is an example of catabolism.

True

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DNA and RNA differ in strandedness, type of sugar, and types of nitrogenous bases.

True

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The name of an enzyme ends in

-ase

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A DNA strand of ACTTCGCATG, when replicated, would yield a strand of the same sequence.

False

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Copying DNA information into an mRNA molecule is called

transcription.

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73
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MicroRNAs

are all of the above

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74
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A DNA sequence of CGCTTACGATTG would be transcribed into an RNA sequence of GCGAAUGCUAAC.

True

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75
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Oxidation of glucose is important because it releases energy.

True

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Which of the following is true?

Much of the genome does not encode protein.

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77
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Catabolism refers to

breakdown of large molecules.

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Energy is defined as

the capacity of matter to change.

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The two strands of a DNA molecule have opposite orientation.

True

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Arsenic poisoning harms the body by

interfering with cellular extraction of energy from glucose.

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Genetic information is contained in protein molecules and is passed from one parent to another.

False

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of enzymes?

They are most active at temperatures about 53 degrees C.

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83
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A peptide bond forms between

adjacent amino acids held on a ribosome and bound to tRNAs.

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Transcription yields protein and translation produces RNA.

False

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DNA replication occurs

during interphase of the cell cycle.

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86
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Three types of genetic changes are

mutations, SNPs, and changes in copy number.

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87
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"Metabolism" refers to

all of the chemical reactions in a cell.

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Synthesis of a protein stops when

any of three "stop" codons are encountered in the mRNA.

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89
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A molecule that is a storage form of carbohydrate is

glycogen.

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Which choice lists structures in order of increasing size?

nitrogenous base - nucleotide - gene - chromosome - genome

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The aerobic phase of respiration occurs in the mitochondria.

True

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The portion of a DNA molecule that contains the genetic information for making a protein is called a gene

True

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Which of the following is not true regarding RNA?

It is double-stranded.

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A mutation is

a change in a DNA sequence in less than 1% of a population that affects anatomy and/or physiology.

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95
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The genetic code is

the correspondence between a DNA nucleotide and a specific amino acid.

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96
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Three factors that increase the rates of enzyme-controlled reactions are the

number of enzyme molecules, number of substrate molecules, and efficiency of the enzyme.

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Catabolism builds up molecules and anabolism breaks down molecules.

False

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An important mechanism that controls metabolic pathways under physiological conditions is

negative feedback.

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99
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When a sucrose molecule is decomposed to yield a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule

water molecule is used.

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All of the genetic information in a cell is a genome.

True

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