Foundations 2: KSA 2

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Cardiovascular system

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113 Terms

1

Cardiovascular system

consists of the heart and blood vessels; transportation network of the body that carries nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from cells

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2

Heart

muscular organ in the chest; has four chambers

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3

Blood vessels

tube-like structures that carry the blood being pumped by the heart

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4

Arteries

blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart

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5

Veins

blood vessels that carry carbon dioxide-rich blood to the heart from the body tissues

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6

Hormones

allow for communication between organs and organ systems; signaling molecules

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7

Blood

helps regulate body temperature

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8

Pulmonary circulation

allows for carbon dioxide-rich blood to go from the tissues to the heart to the lungs; blood enters right atrium, right ventricle, left/right pulmonary arteries, left/right lung where it becomes oxygenated, left/right pulmonary veins, left ventricle

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9

Right/left pulmonary arteries

only artery to carry de-oxygenated blood; brings blood from heart to lungs; emerge from pulmonary trunk of heart

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10

Right/left pulmonary veins

only vein to carry oxygenated blood; brings blood from lungs to heart; enter into left atrium

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11

Systemic circulation

allows for oxygenated blood from heart to go to the tissues; blood goes from left ventricle to aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, capillary beds where blood slows so gases and nutrients can then diffuse into tissues, deoxygeated blood now travels through venules, veins, superior/inferior vena cava and back to right atrium

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12

Aorta

largest artery

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13

Inferior and superior vena cava

largest veins

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14

Capillary beds

slow blood flow so exchange of gases and nutrients between blood and tissues can occur

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15

Anastomoses

blood vessels connecting to each other

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16

Arteriovenous anastomosis

artery and vein join; occur in some regions to retain body heat

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17

Arterioarteral anastomosis

artery and artery join

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18

Venovenous anastomosis

vein and vein join

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19

Collateral circulation

artery and veins joining in arteriovenous anastomosis provides possible detour when there is a blockage in blood supply

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Functional terminal arteries

artery and veins joining in arteriovenous anastomosis to avoid blockage but it’s ineffective or insufficient

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True terminal arteries

blood vessels that do not form anastomoses at all

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22

Portal venous system

venous system connecting two capillary beds before blood reaches heart

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23

Hepatic portal venous system

directs nutrient rich blood from capillary beds of digestive tract to the capillary beds of the liver

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24

thoracic outlet syndrome

condition when any of the neurovascular structures are compressed

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25

root of the neck

junctional area between neck and thorax; formed laterally by first pair of ribs, anteriorly manubrium of sternum, posteriorly body of T1 vertebra

<p>junctional area between neck and thorax; formed laterally by first pair of ribs, anteriorly manubrium of sternum, posteriorly body of T1 vertebra</p>
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26

Brachiocephalic trunk artery

passes through the root of the neck

<p>passes through the root of the neck</p>
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27

Subclavian artery

passes through the root of the neck; has three branches

<p>passes through the root of the neck; has three branches</p>
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28

Vertebral artery

part of first branch of subclavian artery

<p>part of first branch of subclavian artery</p>
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29

Internal thoracic artery

part of first branch of subclavian artery

<p>part of first branch of subclavian artery</p>
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30

Thyrocervical trunk

part of first branch of subclavian artery

<p>part of first branch of subclavian artery</p>
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31

First branch of subclavian artery

Vertebral artery, Internal thoracic artery, Thyrocervical trunk

<p>Vertebral artery, Internal thoracic artery, Thyrocervical trunk</p>
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32

Second part of subclavian artery

costocervical trunk

<p>costocervical trunk</p>
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33

Third part of subclavian artery

dorsal scapular artery

<p>dorsal scapular artery</p>
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34

External and anterior jugular vein

veins in the root of the neck; drain into subclavian vein

<p>veins in the root of the neck; drain into subclavian vein</p>
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35

Subclavian vein

external and anterior jugular vein

<p>external and anterior jugular vein</p>
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36

Brachiocephalic vein

subclavian vein and interior jugular vein combine; where lymphatic drainage occurs

<p>subclavian vein and interior jugular vein combine; where lymphatic drainage occurs</p>
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37

Vagus nerve

major nerve in root of the neck

<p>major nerve in root of the neck</p>
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38

Sympathetic trunks

superior, middle, and inferior cervial ganglion; distribute synthetic innervation to cranium, neck, thorax, and upper lip

<p>superior, middle, and inferior cervial ganglion; distribute synthetic innervation to cranium, neck, thorax, and upper lip</p>
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39

Phrenic nerves

supply the diaphragm

<p>supply the diaphragm</p>
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40

Mediastinum

middle area of the thoracic cavity; between two pulmonary cavities; does not contain lungs

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41

Superior mediastinum

structures of thoracic cavity that are continuous with the root of the neck; contains the thymus, great vessels, inferior continuation of the trachea, inferior continuation of the esophagus, thoracic duct, lymphatic trunks

<p>structures of thoracic cavity that are continuous with the root of the neck; contains the thymus, great vessels, inferior continuation of the trachea, inferior continuation of the esophagus, thoracic duct, lymphatic trunks</p>
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42

Mediastinal pleura

covers either side of the mediastinum

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43

Transverse thoracic plane

separates the superior mediastinum from inferior mediastinum; anatomically it is where the burification/branching of the trachea is and it is the beginning and end of the arch of the aorta

<p>separates the superior mediastinum from inferior mediastinum; anatomically it is where the burification/branching of the trachea is and it is the beginning and end of the arch of the aorta</p>
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44

Inferior mediastinum

lies between transverse thoracic plane and diaphragm

<p>lies between transverse thoracic plane and diaphragm</p>
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45

Middle part of inferior mediastinum

contains the pericardium, heart and root of its great vessels

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46

Thymus

inferior part of neck, anterior part of superior mediastinum; primary lymphoid organ plays a role in immune cell develop; after puberty, it undergoes involution and becomes fat

<p>inferior part of neck, anterior part of superior mediastinum; primary lymphoid organ plays a role in immune cell develop; after puberty, it undergoes involution and becomes fat</p>
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47

Great vessels

brachiocephalic veins, superior vena cava, arch of the aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, left carotid artery, left subclavian artery

<p>brachiocephalic veins, superior vena cava, arch of the aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, left carotid artery, left subclavian artery</p>
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48

Ligamental arteriosum

fibrous band; remnant of embryological ductus arteriosus which shunts blood to travel from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch to bypass fetal lungs

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49

Right vagus nerve

inferior to superior mediastinum, right side of trachea, gives rise to nerves that contribute to the cardiac plexus

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50

Left vagus nerve

descends neck posteriorly to the lft common carotid artery, enters mediastinum between common carotid artery and subclavian artery; gives rise to laryngeal nerve

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51

Phrenic nerve

innervates the diaphragm with motor and sensory fibers; reaches superior mediastinum between subclavian artery and brachiocephalic vein; passes anterior to the root of the lungs

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52

Trachea

descends anterior to the esophagus and enters superior mediastinum; positioned a bit to the right; divides into right and left main bronchi

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53

Esophagus

fibromuscular tube from pharynx to stomach; flattened from front to back

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54

Posterior part of inferior mediastinum

posterior to the pericardium and diaphragm, inferior to transverse thoracic plane, between parietal pleura of lungs

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55

Anterior part of inferior mediastinum

between sternum and transversus thoracis muscles anteriorly and pericardium posteriorly; loose connective tissue, fat, lymphatic vessels a few lymph nodes, branches of internal thoracic vessels

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56

Coronary vascular pairs

right coronary atrium - small cardiac vein

posterior descending artery - middle cardiac vein

left coronary artery (no venous pair)

left anterior descending artery - great cardiac vein

circumflex artery - great cardiac vein

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57

circumflex artery

great cardiac vein

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58

right coronary atrium

small cardiac vein

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59

posterior descending artery

posterior middle cardiac vein

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60

left coronary artery

no venous pair

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61

left anterior descending artery

great cardiac vein

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62

Blood flow through the chambers is

in series and in parallel

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63

Electrically resistant cardiac skeleton

allows for normal cardiac conductance

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64

Cardiac conductance detected usnig

ECG

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65

Right ventricle

anterior border of heart

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66

Left and right atrium

superior border of heart

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67

auricles

increase capacity of the heart when needed

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68

Superior vena cava

connected to right atrium; brings deoxygenated blood into top of right atrium

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69

Inferior vena cava

connected to right atrium; brings deoxygenated blood into top of right atrium

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70

Pulmonary trunk

blood is pumped here from right ventricle to go to lungs

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71

4 pulmonary veins drain _____ blood into left atrium

oxygenated blood

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72

Oxygenated blood travels from left ventricle to

aorta

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73

Coronary sulcus

separates the right atrium and ventricle; separates auricle of left atrium and left ventricle

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74

Coronary sulcus aka

Atrioventricular (AV) groove

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75

Anterior interventricular sulcus

separates right and left ventricles on front part of heart

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76

Ascending aorta

emerges from right ventricle and then arches toward back for form aortic arch

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77

Apex

tip of the heart; points anteriorly and slightly to the left

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78

Most anterior part of the heart

Right ventricle

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79

Ligamentum arteriosum

connects superior portion of pulmonary artery to the inferior surface or aortic arch; significant in embryonic develpment

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80

Most posterior part of the heart

left atrium (anterior to esophagus)

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81

Tricuspid valve

separates the right atrium and right ventricle; attaches to papillary muscles via chordae tendineae

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82

Mitral valve

separates the left atrium and left ventricle; attaches to papillary muscles via chordae tendineaeaoritc

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83

Aortic semilunar valve

pumps blood from left ventricle to aorta to reach the rest of the body

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84

Posterior interventricular sulcus

separates the right and left ventricle on the backside of the heart

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85

Interatrial septum

separates the right and left atrium

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86

Interventricular septum

separates the right and left ventricles

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87

Chordae tendineae

attach tricuspid valve and mitral valve to papillary muscles

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88

Pulmonary semilunar valve

pumps blood from right ventricle to pulmonary trunk/pulmonary arteries to reach the rest of the body

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89

SA node

located at junction of superior vena cava and right atrium

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90

Conducting system of heart

SA node and AV node

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91

AV node

located in interatrial septum

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92

Anterior view of heart

coronary sulcus, anterior interventricular sulcus, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, ascending aorta, pulmonary trunk, ligamentum arteriosum

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93

Posterior view of the heart

posterior intervenrticular sulcus, left and right pulmonary veins, left and right pulmonary arteries, aortic arch, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava

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94

Heart is innervated by

sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers of the cardiac plexus; anterior surface near bifurcation (branching of trachea)

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95

Venous blood is drained by

middle cardiac vein, left marginal vein, left posterior ventricular vein, part of small cardiac vein, oblique vein of left atrium

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96

Dominance of coronary artery

whether the right or left coronary artery gives off the posterior interventricular branch; 65-85% are right coronary artery dominant

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97

Most common dominance

right coronary artery dominance; 65-75% of people

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98

Heart receives arterial blood supply from

right and left coronary artery

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99

Venous blood is drained by the

middle cardiac vein, left marginal vein, left posterior ventricular vein, part of the small cardiac vein, oblique vein of left atrium

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100

Atrioventricular (AV) node

depolarization wave travels from pacemaker cells in SA node to ventricles where it is slowed because of small diameter of AV node and slow calcium ion channels

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