HWS Final SEMESTER 1 (copy)

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Wendi

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191 Terms

1

Wendi

A Buddhist who had a wealthy scholar's education and a military training. The first emperor of the Sui Dynasty that ruled for 8 years.

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2

Genghis Khan

Founder of the Mongol Empire who controlled a massive amount of land. 1/8 of all people in China are descendants of him.

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3

Gentry

Landowner class

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4

Empress Dowager Cixi

Maintained authority in the Qing Dynasty and arguably one of the most powerful women in the history of China. Was an empress dowager for 47 years.

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5

Kublai Khan

Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China.

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6

Chiang Kai-shek

General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925 and head of the Kuomintang. His major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.

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7

Dr. Sun Yat-sen

Chinese physician and political leader who aimed to transform China with patriotic, democratic, and economically progressive reforms. He was the President of China in 1911 and the father of Nationalist Party.

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8

Mao Zedong

Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.

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9

Marco Polo

Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

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10

Dalai Lama

The title of the religious and political leader of Tibet. Invented by the Mongols to bestow on a Tibetan priest in the late 1500s to legitimate their power in Tibet.

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11

Buddha

Means "Enlightened One." He is said to have found a path for overcoming suffering. Siddhartha Gautama.

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12

Confucius

A Chinese philosopher that created one of the most influential philosophies in Chinese history. Kong-fu-zi.

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13

Lao-Zi

Founder of Daoism

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14

Mongol Horde

Mongol army

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15

Manchus

Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644.

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16

Xia

A Chinese dynasty that is not believed to exist.

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17

Han

(206 BCE - 220 CE) Chinese Dynasty ruled a centralized and growing empire for 400 years. Traded on Silk Road.

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18

Qing

(1644 to 1912) The last Chinese dynasty that was run by the Manchus.

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19

Yuan

Mongol dynasty founded by Kublai Khan; united China

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20

Shang

An early Chinese dynasty, thought to be either the first or second dynasty.

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21

Qin

(221 - 207 BCE) A brief, but influential dynasty. Established a centralized government under one ruler.

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22

Sui

(589-618 CE) The Chinese dynasty after the Han dynasty that built the grand canal.

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23

Tang

Ruled after the Sui Dynasty. Trade flourished and is considered a golden age for Chinese art and culture.

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24

Ming

Chinese dynasty that followed the overthrow of the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in China. Population doubled and trade drastically expanded.

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25

Mansa Musa

Islamic emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.

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26

FW DeKlerk

President of South Africa in 1989. Began to dismantle white-only rule and the official structures of the Apartheid. Shared Nobel Peace Prize with Nelson Mandela.

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27

Nelson Mandela

First black president of South Africa

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28

Ibn Battuta

Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits a variety of Islamic lands.

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29

Commodore Matthew Perry

U.S. power who showed up in Japan in 1853 and forced Japan to trade. Made Japan sign Treaty of Kanagawa.

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30

Daimyo

Elite Japanese samurai. The Japanese equivalent of the gentry who commanded a private army of samurai.

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31

Emperor

The "ruler" of Japan. In most of Japan's history they were a figurehead, and the important decisions were left for the Shogun to decide.

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32

Feudal system

A social class system that consisted of the Emperor, Shogun, warrior classes, peasants, artisans, and merchants.

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33

Minamoto Yoritomo

First shogun. Founded kamakura shogunate.

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34

Samurai

Class of warriors in feudal Japan who were tasked to protect the shogun.

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35

Shogunate

The japanese system of centralized government under a shogun, who exercised actual power while the emperor was reduced to a figurehead.

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36

The Fujiwara

Japanese aristocratic family that exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs. Taken over by Minamoto Yoritomo.

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37

The Shogun

A general who ruled Japan in the emperor's name

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38

Tokugawa Ieyasu

Arguably the best Shogun. Set up a new Four-Class system. Closed off almost all trade in Japan.

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39

Yamato clan

Clan, or uji, that dominated a corner of Honshu and set up Japan's first and only dynasty.

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40

Hirohito

Emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II.

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41

Mutsuhito

Emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912. He was responsible for the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the rapid modernization and industrialization of Japan.Kyoiku mama

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42

Kyoiku mama

A Japanese pejorative term which translates literally as "education mother". It is is a term that refers to a mother who relentlessly drives her child to study. The measure of a successful mother is a successful kid.

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43

General Douglas MacArthur

He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WW2.

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44

Yi (Choson)

(1392-1910) The last dynasty and the second golden age of Korea. The alphabet was simplified, and everyone was encouraged to learn to read and write. Later on, the Manchus and Japan invaded in search of natural resources.

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45

koryo

(918-1392) "Korea" is a derivative of the name of this dynasty. During the time period where Mongols conquered east Asia - this dynasty had to pay tribute.

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46

Silla

(668-892) People that controlled the East Coast in Korea during the Three Kingdoms period. Later took over the other two competing groups of people and became a golden age.

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47

kim il song

First President of North Korea. Wanted to unite Korea in communism and needed USSR's help.

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48

Roh Moo-hyun

Not a great president of South Korea from 2003 to 2008. Committed suicide because he felt bad he caused suffering.

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49

kim jong il

son of Kim Il Sung, became ruler of North Korea after his father's death

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50

king sejong

Was a leader of the Yi dynasty. Compressed 20,000 Chinese characters into a simplified language called Hangul. Encouraged that everyone should learn to read and write.

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51

Syngman Rhee

Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.

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52

Aryans

Lighter-skinned nomads from Europe and Asia that migrated to India during the start of the Hindi period. (1500ish)

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53

Chandragupta I

A Hindu ruler who started the Gupta Empire. He named himself after Chandragupta Maurya.

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54

Akbar the Great

Blended Hindu & Muslim cultures because of his religious tolerance. The grandson of Babur who created a strong central government.

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55

Asoka

A ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India, responsible for the spread of Buddhism throughout Asia. Harsh ruler, but later converted to Buddhism and ruled peacefully.

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56

Babur

The founder of Mughal dynasty in India; conquered Afghanistan, most of northern India & modern Pakistan.

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57

Chandragupta Maurya

Founder of the Maurya empire; trade prospered under his reign. He was very concerned about security for capital and himself.

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58

Dravidians

Dark skinned native people of India. Organized Harappa and Mohenjo Daro.

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59

Indira Gandhi

Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru and the first woman in South Asia to be a leader of a country. She helped India become a major world power. Was assassinated by her own guards.

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60

Jawaharlal Nehru

1st prime minister of India that ruled till he died in office. He improved education and economy.

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61

Mohandas Gandhi

An Indian philosopher who practiced nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, and boycotts to gain independence from Britain.

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62

Mohammed Jinnah

Wants security for the Muslim minority and founded Pakistan. He was the leader of the Muslim League.

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63

Rajiv Gandhi

Indira Gandhi's son and successor as Prime Minister of India; killed by a car bomb while campaigning.

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64

Rajah

Small nations India was broken into during the time of confusion and British India.

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65

Australopithecus

hominids who lived as long as 3.7 million years ago (Lucy)

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66

Homo Sapiens

A species of the creatures Hominid who have larger brains and to which humans belong, dependent of language and usage of tools.

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67

anthropoligist

A scientist who studies human development and culture

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68

archaeologist

a scientist who learns about ancient people by studying the things they left behind

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69

Homo Erectus

"Upright man" these hominids became skillful hunters and invented more sophisticated tools for digging, scraping and cutting. They emerged during the early paleolithic age.

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70

Caste System

A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life.

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71

Brahmans

Well educated; upper class; elite - Priests, religious leaders, scholars.

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72

Kshatriyas

Somewhat educated; bureaucrats - Govt officials, military leaders, police.

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73

Vaisyas

Poorly educated but still members of society - merchants, businessmen.Sudras

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74

Sudras

Servants, manual laborers - maids, cooks, household servants.

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75

Pariahs

Untouchables - deal with death, blood, and dirt.

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76

Indus River Valley Civilization

A civilization that possibly had capitals Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; well-organized government. (3000-1500 BCE)

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77

Gupta Empire

The empire that emerged after the Mauryan Empire, and whose founder is Chandra Gupta. Golden-age (320-600 ACE)

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78

Maurya Empire

An Indian empire founded by Chandragupta with a strong central government. Asoka ruled during this time. (300-145 BCE)

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79

British influence

In the 1600s the East India Company was given exclusive trading rights in India. The British controlled India until 1947.

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80

Mughal Empire

A Muslim empire founded by Babur in the 1500s. There were a lot of conflicts between Hinduism and Islam. Akbar and Aurengzeb ruled during this time.

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81

Indian Independence

Many protests such as Indian National Congress and the Muslim League occur. Gandhi perfects the resistance with non-violence. India declares itself independent in 1947 after WWII.

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82

dharma

In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties

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83

karma

The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.

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84

Upanishads/ Gitas

Sacred Hindu texts

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85

Brahma

creator god

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86

Vishnu

preserver god

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87

Shiva

destroyer god

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88

reincarnation

The rebirth of a soul in a new body

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89

civil disobedience

A nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.

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90

Deccan Plateau

A high area of land at the center of the Indian subcontinent.

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91

dowry

property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage

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92

East India Company

An English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia.

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93

Himalayan Republics

Included Nepal and Bhutan. Two countries that resulted from partition. Less powerful and successful because they split from India

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94

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.

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95

Indo-Gangetic Plain

a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh.

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96

Kashmir

A region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought

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97

monsoons (Africa)

seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons in India

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98

monopoly

A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.

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99

Muslim League

an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations

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100

Pakistan (east and west)

East became Bangladesh, West became Pakistan.

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