Romantic Era Test 1

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Each piece of music should express a single emotional idea, no contrast

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Music

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1

Each piece of music should express a single emotional idea, no contrast

What's the concept of the singularity in music?

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2

Singularity, long spun-out melodies, motor rhythm, importance of harmony and counterpoint

What are some characteristics of baroque music? (4)

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3

It carries the listener away

Why did romantic composers think Bach's Prelude #1 was romantic?

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4

Focus on the natural, shift away from complex counterpoint, shift towards periodic melody, simplification of texture, greater variety (but not too much), balance between opposing ideas

What are some traits of classical music? (How does it differ from baroque music?) (6)

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5

Fast dramatic, slow lyric, moderate dance-minuet or fast joke-scherzo, and fast jubilant

What were the characteristics of the classical/romantic four movement model?

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6

Sonata, variation, ternary, and rondo

What are the typical forms of the classical/romantic four movement model?

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7

3rd or 4th

Which sections were most typically excluded from the classical/romantic four movement model?

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8

A: Minuet or Scherzo, B: Trio, A: Minuet or Scherzo

What is ternary form?

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9

Statement, statement, departure, return, departure, return (usually, for the last A of ABA, you don't repeat the statement, departure, or return again)

What is rounded binary form?

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10

Exposition (repeated), development, recapitulation, (coda)

What is sonata form?

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11

A transition B transition close, two different melodic ideas in two different keys

What happens in the exposition of sonata form?

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12

Free section to do whatever

What happens in the development of a sonata form?

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13

Restatement of exposition music, but stays in one key

What happens in the recapitulation of a sonata form?

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14

Thought it was lesser because sounds without words have no moral significance, only sensory stimulation

What were Kant's thoughts on instrumental music?

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15

In awe- believes it was created to preserve human emotion and that it does so in a way no other art can, also thinks looking too much into the "why" of music can ruin its beauty/divinity

What does Wackenroder think about music?

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16

1750-1800

When did the classical period exist?

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17

1815

When did the romantic era start?

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18

Form, emotion

Whereas classical music focuses on [blank], romantic music focuses on [blank]

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19

Nothing- they share the same ones

What's the difference between classical and romantic music forms?

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20

Music = pleasure, can't be emotionally engaged to value music, music is least valuable because it lacks morals, and music should be judged by reason

How does Kant see music? (4)

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21

Judges music by emotion, touches what is intangible, what is important is what it generates in our minds, and knowing is feeling

How does Wackenroder see music? (4)

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22

The idea of elevation (Kant is pleasure to beauty to good, Wackenroder is mundane to divine)

How do Kant and Wackenroder view music similarly?

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23

Literature

Romantic ideas start in [blank]

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24

Wordsworth (English poet), and the Schlegel brothers, who talked about nature and feeling (very anti-enlightenment ideas)

Who were some of the figures of romantic literature? What made them such?

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25

His heroic period, struggle to victory (still has classicism of Mozart and Haydn + heroic nature of French music + philosophic stoicism)

What is Beethoven's middle period?

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26

Pieces start out chaotic, but end victorious

What defines Beethoven's "struggle to victory"?

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27

5th Symphony

What is an example of music form Beethoven's heroic period?

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28

Purely abstract patterns that are transformed into something meaningful by the end

How does Beethoven build the 5th symphony?

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29

Links the movements together through s-s-s-l in every movement, starts minor and descending moving towards major and ascending at the end

What does it mean that Beethoven's 5th symphony is cyclic?

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30

There seems to be a goal

What does it mean that Beethoven's 5th symphony is teleological?

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31

Clear melodies, longer melodies, clarity of form, wide variety of material

What are some Mozart traits? (4)

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32

Organic growth, destabilizing the stable, concentrating ideas (motive), chiari/scuro contrast

What are some Beethoven traits? (4)

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33

Extension of Mozart and Haydn (classical), but more emotional

How is Beethoven's early period defined?

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34

Transcendent, contradictions- heroic, simple and folk-like, use of counterpoint, interest in past, stream of consciousness flow, sense of narrative

How is Beethoven's late period defined?

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35

More dissonance, more forceful rhythm, greater build to climax, more motives, more interrelationship of material, more development and manipulation, more winds and brass

What does Beethoven's middle period sound like? (7)

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36

Allegro con brio (sonata form), andante con moto (T&V), allegro (ternary form), allegro (sonata form)

What are the movements of Beethoven's 5th symphony?

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37

Smooth, polished, light, delicate, form, pleasure

What are some characteristics of the beautiful? (6)

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38

Intense, violent, overwhelming, vast, formless, gloomy

What are some characteristics of the sublime? (6)

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39

Hoffman

Who coined the term "romantic" (music)?

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40

Feeling and sensation

How did Dahlhaus view music?

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41

Finds a lyric, romantic side, seen in the Archduke Trio through singable (cantabile) melodies, lack of struggle

How does Beethoven's middle period music change in 1810? Where can this be seen?

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42

Manipulation of patterns, the rules by which you make a good argument

What is rhetoric referring to in Beethoven's music?

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43

Resetting the patterns

What is color referring to in Beethoven's music?

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44

Intimate, inner, internal, personal

What does Innig mean? (hint: related to the Archduke trio)

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45

Romantic, cantabile melodies, and innig don't fit in with the heroic struggle

Why doesn't Beethoven's music from 1810-1815 fit with his periods?

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46

Rhetoric = 5th symphony, Archduke trio = color, rhetoric is about development, color is about presentation

Which of Beethoven's pieces uses rhetoric, which uses color? Why?

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47

Figuration

What tool does Schubert use in his writing?

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48

Juxtaposition, abrupt stops/starts, counterpoint

What are some traits characteristic of late Beethoven?

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49

Can't compare them- like apples and oranges

What does Dahlhaus say about Beethoven and Rossini?

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50

Beethoven's meaning is found on the page, Rossini's meaning is found in the performance

How do the philosophies of Beethoven and Rossini's works differ?

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51

An Italian type of singing focused on muscle toning and rounded, clear sound, very melodic (smooth out breaks in voice)

What is bel canto?

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52

Coloratura, articulation, dexterity, high notes, ornaments, passagi (fast, running passages)

What are some style characteristics of bel canto singing?

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53

Folk

During the latter part of his middle period, Beethoven sets accompaniments to [blank] songs to make money, like with Ode to Joy

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54

Changing of vocal sound on the notes

What is coloratura?

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55

Conventions

What enabled Rossini to write many operas quickly?

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56

A-A-B-A

What's the basic form of an aria?

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57

Comic confusion, used in an ensemble finale, the finale to the first act of the comic opera

What is the idea of Imbroglio? When is it used?

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58

String Quartet No. 13 in B-Flat, Op. 130

What piece is characteristic of Beethoven's late period?

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59

1815

When does romantic music start?

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60

Congress of Vienna

What happened in 1815 that was trying to put Europe back into a pre-Napoleonic mold?

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61

Revolution

What happened in 1830?

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62

More violent revolutions, and the Communist Manifesto

What happened in 1848?

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63

The middle-class market wants to play pieces at home

Why did lieder become popular?

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64

Salons built around the popularity of Schubert

What were Schubertiads?

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65

Strophic form

When all text as the same music

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66

Schubert

The artistic value of the song increases in the 19th century because of [blank].

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67

In the 18th century, people were concerned with primacy of text- should support but not intrude with he music

How did people view songs in the 18th century?

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68

Each line of text has its own musical setting

What does through-composed mean?

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69

Certain kind of poem that is narrative, has a supernatural component, and a conversation

What is a ballade?

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70

Erlkönig

What's an example of a ballade?

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71

Third

Schubert composed over 600 songs, but only about a [blank] were published while he was alive

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72

Narrator, father, son, and Erlkönig

Who are the 4 characters of Erlkönig?

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73

Müller

Who wrote Die Wintereisse?

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74

A poetic cycle of narrative poems

What is Die Wintereisse?

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75

A form in which the music of the first verse repeats for subsequent verses but with some significant variation or modification (rhythmic, harmonic, melodic).

What's modified strophic form?

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76

A set of songs grouped as a unit, with either some common textual theme or a common author; sometimes there are musical interconnections between songs.

What is a song cycle?

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77

Modified Strophic

What's the form of Der Lindenbaum?

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78

Not depictive, mostly looking to establish a feeling or color

How does Clara's setting of Liebst du um Schönheit vary from Schubert's settings of poems?

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79

Found in mystery and emotion- over rationalizing something can kill it

What did the romantics think about truth?

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80

Infinite, transcendent, folk, brilliance, historicism, lyric, intimate, and yearning

What are some distinctly romantic themes? (8)

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81

Piece of music before something else (usually an opera)

What is an overture?

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82

Mozart, Bach, and Beethoven

Who were Mendelssohn's influences?

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83

Florestan and Eusebius

Who were the two personas of Schumann?

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84

Contemplative

What is Eusebius's personality?

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85

Effervescent, flowing

What is Florestan's personality?

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86

Comedia dell'arte

Where does Schumann take inspiration for the characters of Pierrot and the Arlequin?

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87

Droopy, white clown

Describe Pierrot

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88

Bright, bouncy, jumping

Describe Arlequin

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89

Mozart, Beethoven

Mendelssohn draws more inspiration from [blank], Schumann from [blank].

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90

Jean Paul Richter and ETA Hoffman

Who were the authors that Schumann liked?

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91

Kriesler

What character did ETA Hoffman create?

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92

Neue Zeitschrift

What was the name of the newspaper that Schumann started?

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93

Bach, via a performance of his St. Matthew Passion

Who was Mendelssohn responsible for reviving interest in?

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94

Love of counterpoint (canons, fugues)

What characteristics of Bach does Mendelssohn show?

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95

Variety of material, sense of melodic and formal balance, elegance

What characteristics of Mozart does Mendelssohn show?

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96

Songs without words

What does Lieder ohne Worte translate to?

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97

Romantic idea that suggests some meanings transcend words and are pure expression

What's the deal with Lieder one Worte?

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98

Empty virtuosos

Who were the Philistines of music?

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99

Like David, opposed the massive, popular giant, the brilliant style, believed music needed to mean something, higher purpose

Davidsbund

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100

Schumann

Who created the idea of Davidsbund vs. the Phillistines?

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