Micro 1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology 3 ideas

1 / 410

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
411
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
411 Terms
1
New cards

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology 3 ideas

  1. Cells store Information, long-term, in DNA, in the form of nucleotide sequences.

New cards
2
New cards
  1. mRNA is a copy of a DNA sequence of a gene, made during transcription

New cards
3
New cards
  1. Proteins are synthesized during translation, based on the nucleotide sequence of a mRNA.

New cards
4
New cards

What information is stored In cells DNA

all information required for making proteins (stored long-term in genes)

New cards
5
New cards

What is DNA made of?

Made of long-term stored proteins in genes

New cards
6
New cards

What is a "nucleotide sequence?

Monomers create into polymers (DNA/RNA) made from a N base, sugar (riose/deoxyribose) and 1/2/3 P groups (RNA = 1,000's long DNA = Mil. Long)

New cards
7
New cards

What enzyme complex performs DNA synthesis?

DNA polymerase

New cards
8
New cards

When is mRNA made? What is it?

mRNA is a copy of a DNA sequence of a gene, made during transcription .

New cards
9
New cards

What enzyme complex performs transcription?

RNA polymerase

New cards
10
New cards

What does mRNA stand for?

messenger ribonucleic acid

New cards
11
New cards

What is a gene

segment of DNA that codes for a protein

New cards
12
New cards

The recipe for making one protein (mRNA = short-term)

New cards
13
New cards

When are proteins synthesized?

Proteins are synthesized during translation, based on the nucleotide sequence of a mRNA.

New cards
14
New cards

What is a protein?

chain of amino acids

New cards
15
New cards

(~300 per) Enzymes that catalyze chem. Reactions. How cells control all their biochemical reactions, metabolism, and ability to make new molecules. Can be structural (hold things together) or regulators (make decisions/plans)

New cards
16
New cards

What enzyme complex performs translation?

Ribosome "reads" mRNA to know how to make correct protein

New cards
17
New cards

What are polymers?

DNA, RNA, and proteins are all polymers.

New cards
18
New cards

What is a polymer?

long chain of monomers

New cards
19
New cards

Essential macromolecules composed of repeating subunits (aa)

New cards
20
New cards

What are proteins? (Essential what? (Structures for what?)

Most essential cellular machines and many cellular structures are proteins.

New cards
21
New cards

Sequence of amino acids determine what about proteins?

The sequence of amino acids determines everything about a protein, including its function.

New cards
22
New cards

List three example functions of proteins, being careful to think about cell functions, instead of organ or system functions

Structure/cell shape, inner organization, waste cleanup, manufacture product, routine maintenance

New cards
23
New cards

Why is microscopy important?

Microscopy is necessary in microbiology because most cells on earth are too small for the human eye to see

New cards
24
New cards

Magnification

Magnification is the process of making an image larger. It is easy to do with lenses or with computers. It is a necessary part of microscopy.

New cards
25
New cards

Explain how to calculate the total magnification from a light microscope such as what we use in lab

Uses two lenses for magnification. Total magnification = ocular lens x objective lens magnification (4x/10x/40x/100x) Use 1000x for bacteria

New cards
26
New cards

List the typical magnification powers found in our lab for ocular and objective lenses.

Ocular lens magnification = 10X or 20X Objective lens magnification = 4X, 10X, 40X, 100X

New cards
27
New cards

Resolution (aka resolving power) (is it easy to do with lenses/computers?)

Resolution (or resolving power) is the ability to visually separate details in an image. It is NOT easy to do with lenses or computers. Resolution is the limit for what a microscope can see.

New cards
28
New cards

limits of resolution

There are physical limits on resolution, such as the size of a lens (or of a telescope mirror) and the wavelength of light being observed.

New cards
29
New cards

When is powerful magnification useful/useless?

High (powerful) magnification is useless unless there is also very good resolution.

New cards
30
New cards

Describe the appearance of a bacterial cell under high magnification with bad resolution

The outline of the bacteria is able to be seen, but no greater details, just looks like small blobs

New cards
31
New cards

Why is contrast important?

Contrast is essential in microscopy because without it, there are no details to observe.

New cards
32
New cards

Do all microscopes generate contrast?

Some microscopes generate contrast, others do not.

New cards
33
New cards

How do light microscopes work?

Light microscopes magnify images using visible light.

New cards
34
New cards

How do electron microscopes work?

Electron microscopes magnify images using electrons.

New cards
35
New cards

Compare the electron microscope to a light microscope and explain why the difference matters, using terminology from this guide.

Electron beams have a shorter wavelength than light = better resolution = stronger, more detailed magnification (for bacteria, not blurry!)

New cards
36
New cards

Prokaryotes are Bacteria and Archaea are single or multi celled? Do they have nuclei or membrane bound organelles?

single cells that don't have nuclei or membrane-bound organelles

New cards
37
New cards

size of prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

Prokaryotes are smaller than eukaryotes

New cards
38
New cards

examples of eukaryotes

Eukaryotes include Fungi and Protists, as well as plants and animals.

New cards
39
New cards

Helminths are technically animals*

New cards
40
New cards

Do eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles or a nucleus?

All of these have nuclei and membrane-bound organelles

New cards
41
New cards

examples of membrane bound organelles

endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria/chloroplasts

New cards
42
New cards

What are ribosomes?

Ribosomes are the large enzymatic complexes that synthesize proteins.

New cards
43
New cards

Name the process of synthesizing proteins

Makes short-term copy of gene (mRNA) = Transcription (performed by RNA polymerase), cell's ribosome reads mRNA and makes protein = Translation

New cards
44
New cards

What are ribosomes made of?

Ribosomes are made of both numerous proteins and several RNA molecules.

New cards
45
New cards

What does rRNA do? What do they not do?

These ribosomal RNA molecules (rRNA) do NOT encode proteins; they just act as structures that hold ribosomes together.

New cards
46
New cards

What kind of RNA DOES encode proteins?

mRNA

New cards
47
New cards

16S rRNA

polynucleotide (~1500 bases)

New cards
48
New cards

functions as part of the small subunit of the ribosome of Bacteria and Archaea and from whose gene sequence evolutionary information can be obtained; its eukaryotic counterpart is 18S rRNA

New cards
49
New cards

New cards
50
New cards

-Does not encode a protein, so never translated, plays role in scaffold, holds catalytic proteins in right place within ribosome

New cards
51
New cards

What are the DNA molecules found in prokaryotes?

Chromosomes and plasmids are DNA molecules found in prokaryotes.

New cards
52
New cards

Do all cells have chromosomes? Plasmids?

All cells have one or more chromosomes, but not all cells have plasmids.

New cards
53
New cards

Chromosomes ("size", what they do, why they are needed)

Chromosomes tend to be large (in other words, very very long DNA molecules) that encode thousands of proteins. A cell typically needs its chromosomes because they encode its most essential proteins, such as the ones that make up ribosomes.

New cards
54
New cards

Name two other essential protein complexes from the central dogma.

mRNA and RNA polymerase

New cards
55
New cards

Explain again what DNA is made of and why it is part of the central dogma

Made of nucleotides in a sequence (Mil. Long), contain information needed to make all our proteins

New cards
56
New cards

Plasmids

Plasmids are relatively shorter DNA molecules. They typically encode proteins that are useful only under special conditions.

New cards
57
New cards

Name two of the special conditions related to plasmids

can exist autonomously and can replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome

New cards
58
New cards

Structure and function of bacterial cell membranes vs humans cell membrane

The bacterial cell membrane has the same basic structure and function as a human cell's plasma membrane:

New cards
59
New cards

Cell membranes (plasma membrane) (made of what?)

It is a structure made of phospholipids that are arranged so that their hydrophilic "heads" are external and their hydrophobic "tails" are internal.

New cards
60
New cards

Phospholipid

a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes

New cards
61
New cards

*Lipid containing a P group in its molecule

New cards
62
New cards

Hydrophobic

Water fearing

New cards
63
New cards

Hydrophilic

water loving

New cards
64
New cards

What is a phospholipid membrane made of? How many layers

A phospholipid membrane is made of two leaflets, or layers of phospholipids

New cards
65
New cards

What layer is in contact with the cytosol? What layer is in contact with the external environment?

the deeper or inner leaflet that is in contact with the cytosol

New cards
66
New cards

outer or superficial leaflet in contact with the external environment

New cards
67
New cards

what is the difference between cytosol and cytoplasm?

Cytosol is part of the cell that includes fluids but not organelles and nucleus

New cards
68
New cards

New cards
69
New cards

Cytoplasm is a region of the cell that contains fluid cytoskeleton and all organelles except the nucleus

New cards
70
New cards

New cards
71
New cards

(Fluid in cells cytoplasm, surrounds organelles in E. cells, cytoplasm is part of the cell which is contained within the entire cell membrane)

New cards
72
New cards

Is the phospholipid membrane fluid? What can't move across it?

The phospholipids are not chemically bonded together, so the membrane is very fluid and molecules can move along it in two dimensions. Most molecules cannot freely cross the membrane

New cards
73
New cards

List functions of a cell membrane

Providing a waterproof barrier, keeping things in cell, unwanted substances out, allows transport (channels) for wastes and needed materials

New cards
74
New cards

New cards
75
New cards

(Regulates materials entering and leaving the cell (selective permeability). Also gives cells their shape.)

New cards
76
New cards

What is embedded in the phospholipid bilayer? On what sides?

There are many proteins embedded in the membrane. Some cross it, some are only on the external side, and some are only on the internal side.

New cards
77
New cards

Give some examples of membrane proteins in the phospholipid bilayer from human physiology.

Aquaporins, protein channels, peripheral and integral proteins

New cards
78
New cards

phospholipid bilayer permeability

membrane is waterproof and selectively permeable

New cards
79
New cards

Review the basic idea behind selective permeability and think of some relevant situations from human physiology.

Differentiate between types of molecules, allowing some in, and blocking others. Ex. Lipid-soluble in E. cells = hydrocarbons, O2

New cards
80
New cards

Do human cells have a cell wall? Do bacterial cells have a cell wall? What is it made of?

Unlike human cells, most bacterial cells have a cell wall. This is made of the polymer peptidoglycan

New cards
81
New cards

Define polymer and explain how it differs from a bunch of phospholipids that make up a cell membrane

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

New cards
82
New cards

Essential macromolecules composed of repeating subunits (aa). A phospholipid that makes up the cell membrane is composed of P groups in one molecule, polymers are made of aa. groups

New cards
83
New cards

What does the cell wall provide for the cell? What about the cell membrane?

While the cell membrane provides waterproofing and selective permeability, the cell wall provides physical strength.

New cards
84
New cards

Among common bacteria, there are two very common types

Gram positive and gram negative

New cards
85
New cards

Gram (+) CELL MEMBRANE:

Waterproof cell mem., superficial to that is a thick peptidoglycan cell wall, Techoic acids (diverse group of polymers embedded in the peptidoglycan, anchor the peptidoglycan to cell mem.)

New cards
86
New cards

Gram (-) INNER MEMBRANE:

Waterproof cell mem., superficial to the membrane a periplasmic space (periplasm), within the periplasm is a thin peptidoglycan layer, superficial to the periplasm is an "outer mem.", Lipopolysaccharide (makes up part of outer mem.)

New cards
87
New cards

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

molecule that makes up part of the outer (superficial) leaflet of the Gram negative outer membrane.

New cards
88
New cards

LPS combines a lipid (on its deeper end) and a carbohydrate (polysaccharide) on its superficial end.

New cards
89
New cards

The lipid end is embedded in the outer membrane, and the carbohydrate sticks out into the extracellular space

New cards
90
New cards

Extracellular

outside the cell

New cards
91
New cards

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) AKA what? Why?

LPS is also known as endotoxin, because cells from the human immune system can detect it and rapidly respond by triggering fever and inflammation.

New cards
92
New cards

New cards
93
New cards

Even dead Gram negative cells, if injected into a person's blood or lymph, can thus cause dangerous high fever and excessive inflammation.

New cards
94
New cards

Flagella

Flagella are corkscrew-like protein appendages that bacteria can use to push themselves through water. A single one is called a flagellum. Bacterial movement is called motility.

New cards
95
New cards

What ways can flagella move?

Bacteria with flagella cannot turn left or right. They can only go forward, or randomly tumble by spinning the flagellum backwards.

New cards
96
New cards

Can bacteria move through chemical gradients? How?

Some bacteria can detect chemical gradients, and move towards an area of higher or lower concentration. They do this by regulating how often they go forward vs. how often they tumble.

New cards
97
New cards

Chemotaxis

Cell movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus

New cards
98
New cards

This movement toward or away from a chemical is called chemotaxis.

New cards
99
New cards

Phototaxis

movement in response to light

New cards
100
New cards

Other bacteria can move toward or away from light. This is called phototaxis.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 84 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 176 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard135 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard81 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 183 people
Updated ... ago