Biol 2011 - Quiz 7

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central nervous system CNS

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central nervous system CNS

brain + spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system PNS

everything else (cranial and peripheral nerves)

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nervous system

the brain, spinal cord, and nerves are the organs

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general function

sensory → receives stimuli via receptors

integration → relays sensory input to the CNS

motor → sends signals to the effectors that respond to the initial stimulus

the tissues comprising the nervous system are composed of neurons, supporting cells, and connective tissues. neurons are the only cells that functions in communication

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nuclei of neuroglia cells

small dark purple dots

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the spinal cord starts at the

foramen magnum

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where it joins to the most inferior part of the brain the

medulla oblongata

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cervical enlargement

here the cord is thicker because of the additional neurons needed to service the shoulder/arm

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lumbar enlargement

needed to service the hip/leg

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conus medullaris

cone shaped end of spinal cord

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filum terminale

single, fibrous strand that attaches end of spinal cord to coccyx

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meninges

brain and spinal cord enclosed in three membranes

dura mater → superficial

arachnoid matter

pia mater → deepest

CNS ‘floats’ in cerebrospinal fluid that fills the subarachnoid space

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cn I

olfactory (smell)

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cn II

optic (vision)

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cn III

oculomotor (eye muscle, pupil constriction)

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cn IV

trochlear (one extrinsic eye muscle)

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cn V

trigeminal (face, nasal cavity, chewing)

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cn VI

abducens (one extrinsic eye muscle)

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cn VII

facial (facial expression, tears)

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cn VIII

vestibulocochlear (hearing and balance)

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cn IX

glossopharyngeal (taste, pressure, pain)

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cn X

vagus (taste, swallowing, fullness, speech)

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cn XI

accessory (soft plate, pharynx)

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cn XII

hypoglossal (tongue)

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brain ventricles

these are 4 cavities within the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

lateral ventricles → the largest ventricle; located just below the corpus callosum

third ventricle

cerebral aqueduct

fourth ventricle

central canal

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general neuron structure

1

cell body (soma)

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general neuron structure

2

dendrites

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general neuron structure

3

nissl bodies

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general neuron structure

4

nucleus

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general neuron structure

5

trigger zone

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general neuron structure

5a

axon hillock

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general neuron structure

5b

intitial segment

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general neuron structure

6

axon

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general neuron structure

7

nodes of ranvier

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general neuron structure

8

schwann cells of myelin sheath

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general neuron structure

9

synaptic knob

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general neuron structure

10

axon collateral

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giant multipolar neurons

1

nucleus

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giant multipolar neurons

2

cell processes

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spinal cord and spinal nerves

1

occipital bone

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spinal cord and spinal nerves

2

brainstem

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spinal cord and spinal nerves

3

cervical enlargement

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spinal cord and spinal nerves

4

lumbar enlargement

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spinal cord and spinal nerves

5

conus medullaris

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spinal cord and spinal nerves

6

filum terminale

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spinal cord and spinal nerves

7

cauda equina

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cross section of the spinal cord

1

spinal meninges

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cross section of the spinal cord

1a

dura mater

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cross section of the spinal cord

1b

arachnoid mater

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cross section of the spinal cord

1c

pia mater

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cross section of the spinal cord

2

epidural space

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cross section of the spinal cord

3

subdural space

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cross section of the spinal cord

4

subarachnoid space

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cross section of the spinal cord

5

spinal nerve

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cross section of the spinal cord

6

dorsal root ganglion

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cross section of the spinal cord

7

dorsal root

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cross section of the spinal cord

8

ventral root

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cross section of the spinal cord

9

white matter

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cross section of the spinal cord

10

gray matter

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cross section of the spinal cord

11

vertebral artery

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cross section of the spinal cord

12

dorsal horn of gray matter

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cross section of the spinal cord

13

lateral horn of gray matter

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cross section of the spinal cord

14

ventral horn of gray matter

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cross section of the spinal cord

15

gray commissure

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cross section of the spinal cord

16

central canal

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cross section of the spinal cord

17

anterior median nerve

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cross section of the spinal cord

18

sympathetic chain ganglia

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nervous tissue histology

1

white matter

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nervous tissue histology

2

dorsal horn

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nervous tissue histology

3

ventral horn

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nervous tissue histology

4

gray commissure

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nervous tissue histology

5

central canal

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brain structures

1

gyri (sing. gyrus)

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brain structures

2

sulci (sing. sulcus)

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brain structures

3

central sulcus

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brain structures

4

lateral horn

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brain structures

5

frontal lobe

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brain structures

6

parietal lobe

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brain structures

7

occipital lobe

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brain structures

8

temporal lobe

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brain structures

9

cerebellum

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brain structures

10

brain stem

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brain structures

10a

pons

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brain structures

10b

medulla oblongata

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brain structures

11

spinal cord

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cerebral hemispheres

1

central sulcus

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cerebral hemispheres

2

longitudinal fissure

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cerebral hemispheres

3

frontal lobe

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cerebral hemispheres

4

parietal lobe

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cerebral hemispheres

5

occipital lobe

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cerebral hemispheres

6

temporal lobe

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cerebral hemispheres

7

pons

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cerebral hemispheres

8

medulla oblongata

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cerebral hemispheres

9

cerebellum

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cerebral hemispheres

10

olfactory bulbs of the olfactory nerve (CN I)

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cerebral hemispheres

11

olfactory tracts of CN I

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cerebral hemispheres

12

pituitary gland

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cerebral hemispheres

13

optic chiasm and optic nerve (CN II)

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sagittal section

1

cerebral cortex (gray matter)

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sagittal section

2

gyrus

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