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Lamarck

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Biology

11th

264 Terms

1

Lamarck

First to state that organism can change

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2

Charles Lyell

Geologist who said earth was old

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3

Thomas Malthus

Economist who said there were limited amounts of money and resources (carrying capacity)

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4

Charles Darwin

Studied finches and created a theory of natural selection

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5

Natural selection

heritable trait + variation in a population + selective pressure + differential survival and reproduction

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6

3 types of natural selection

normal variation, directional (shifted), diversifying (middle bad), stabilizing (middle good)

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7

Artificial selection

Humans select their favorite traits and breed them

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8

4 types of evidence of evolution

Fossil evidence, Anatomical evidence, Embryological evidence, and Biochemical evidence

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9

Fossil evidence

Physical remains from the past and at least 10,000 years old

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10

Anatomical evidence

Organism have anatomical similarities between species

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11

Homologous structure

Same structure, different function

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12

Analogous structure

Different structure, same function

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13

Vestigial structure

remains of a structure that was functional in the same ancestors but is no longer functional

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14

Embryological evidence

common ancestry

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15

Biochemical evidence

uses same DNA code and same 20 amino acids in their proteins

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16

Variation in population

caused through mutations (good gets passed on bad is left)

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17

Microevolution

changes in allele frequencies in a population

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18

Allele

a version of a gene (Aa)

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19

4 types of microevolution

Natural selection, mutations, gene flow, and genetic drift

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20

Mutations

random change in DNA

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21

Gene flow

genes move in or out of a population

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22

Genetic drift

random death due to luck

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23

Polygenetic traits

controlled by two or more genes

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24

Biological species concept

individuals can reproduce and create viable/fertile offspring

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25

Reproductive isolation

Prevents from having offspring (geographic)

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26

Zygote

fertilized egg

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27

5 types of prezygotic barries

habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, technical isolation, gametic isolation

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28

Habitat isolation

same area, different habitats

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29

behavioral isolation

signals that attract

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30

temporal isolation

different timing

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31

mechanical isolation

parts don't fit

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32

gametic isolation

egg and sperm don't fuse, egg rejects sperm

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33

post zygotic barriers

not a viable fertile adult

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34

Allopatric speciation

new species evolve due to geographic barrier

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35

sympatric speciation

new species evolve without geographic separation

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36

adaptive radiation

one common ancestor to a lot of new species

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37

punctuated equilibrium

short burst of change then long period of no change

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38

gradualism

slow and steady change over time

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39

cladogram

phylogenetic diagram to show divergence

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40

Clade

evolutionary branch in diagram

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41

How old is earth?

4.6 BYO

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42

Fitness

Measure of reproductive success

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43

Sexual selection

Mate choice

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44

Prokaryote Cell

A cell without a nucleus - First cell

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45

Eukaryote Cell

Cell that has several complex organelles

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46

Reduced hybrid fertility

Sterile (cross species can’t reproduce)

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47

Intersexual selection

good genes female picks

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48

Intrasexual selection

Male, male competition

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49

Selective pressure

external agents which affect organisms ability to survive in given environment

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50

Gases on early earth

Co2, water vapor, N, CO, hydrogen sulfide, & hydrogen cyanide

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51

Conditions on early earth

The sky was pink/orange and there were lots of volcanic activity

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52

How the first life forms were created

They began in the water

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53

How does speciation occur?

a group within a species separates from other members of it's species and develops its own characteristics

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54

What must be present for speciation to occur.

Two new populations must form from one population

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55

Types of speciation

allopatric & sympatric

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56

directional shift

light-colored mouse blends in with the grass, dark brown blends in with dirt, but a medium brown stand out

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57

sexual reproduction

reproduction involving the union of a male and a female

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58

What is life

Made up by cells, metabolize energy, evolve, grow, exchange of gases, respond to external stimuli, reproduce, genetic material

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59

Biology

The study of living things

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60

Ecology

Study of relationships of living things with each other and their environment

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61

Ecosystem

Abiotic and biotic factors

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62

Ecosystem characteristic

Temperature and precipitation

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63

Organism

Living thing that makes up a population

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64

Population

Same species in an area

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65

Community

Multiple different species in an area

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66

Biosphere

Earth

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67

How are biomes characterized?

By a regions average temperature and precipitation

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68

Grassland

Rain, wildfires, few trees, foxes, coyotes, and bison (Mideast US)

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69

Deciduous Forest

Leaves fall off trees, 4 season, chipmunk, deer, and black bear (Midwest US)

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70

Producers

Create their own food through photosynthesis

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71

Autotrophs

Also known as primary producers

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72

Heterotrophs

Organisms that rely on other organism for energy and nutrients

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73

Herbivores

Eat plants

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74

Carnivores

Kill and eat other animals

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75

Omnivores

Eat both plants and animals

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76

Scavengers

Eat carcasses of dead animals

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77

Decomposers

Chemically breaks down organic matter

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78

How does energy flow in a food chain

Flow to who is receiving the energy

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79

Species

A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce offspring

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80

Geosphere

All of the rock at and below Earth's surface

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81

Hydrosphere

All the water above and below Earth's surface

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82

Atmosphere

Thin layer of gases that surround Earth

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83

Scientific methodology

Observation, experimentation , and modeling

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84

Food chain

organism obtains energy from the one at the level below

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85

Photosynthesis

The process that uses energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen

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86

Cellular respiration

The process of converting glucose

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87

Primary producers

Make their own food (eaten by primary consumers)

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88

What are the four types of consumers

Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores

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89

Ways to classify consumers

Primary, secondary, tertiary

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90

What is parasitism considered and why?

Happy, sad (bacteria is happy, you are sad)

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91

Mutualism

Cooperative partnership between two

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92

What is mutualism considered and why?

Happy, happy

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93

Commensalism

One benefits and the other is unharmed

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94

What is commensalism considered and why?

Happy, don't care

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95

Coevolution

When 2 or more species evolve

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96

Immigration

Coming in population

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97

Emigration

Coming out population

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98

Density-dependent

Biotic factors have an increasing effect as population increases

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99

Predator and Prey

Actively hunt and consume another

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100

Competition

Two or more compete for the same food/resources

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