Chapter 27 Prokaryotes

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Prokaryote

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Tags and Description

48 Terms

1

Prokaryote

Unicellular organisms that make up the domains archaea and bacteria; most abundant organism

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2

Coccus/cocci

Spherical shaped prokaryotes

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3

Bacillus/bacilli

Rod-shaped prokaryotes

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4

Peptidoglycan

Polymer made of modified sugars linked by short polypeptides; used to build cell walls of bacteria

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5

Gram positive

Bacteria that turn purple during gram staining; thick layer of pdg; less complex structure

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6

Gram negative

Bacteria that turn pink during gram staining; thin layer of pdg; more complex structure

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7

Hans Christian Gram

Developed gram staining procedure

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8

Capsule

A dense, well defined shell made of polysaccharides or proteins; sticky and helps bacteria adhere

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9

Flagella

Structure in prokaryotes that allows for taxis

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10

Binary fission

Process through which prokaryotes reproduce

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11

Horizontal gene transfer

Form of genetic recombination; DNA is combined from different sources

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12

Transformation

DNA is taken from environment

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13

Transduction

Phages insert DNA into the cell

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14

Conjugation

DNA is transferred between two prokaryotic cells via sex pilus

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15

Phototroph

Organisms that receive energy from light

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16

Chemotroph

Obtain energy from chemicals

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17

Autotroph

Produce their own food using CO2 or related compounds

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18

Heterotroph

Require at least one organic nutrient

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19

Photoautotroph

Organisms that receive energy from light

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20

Chemoautotroph

Using inorganic chemicals to produce energy

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21

Photoheterotroph

Using light and organic carbon compounds to produce energy

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22

Chemoheterotroph

Using organic chemical and carbon compounds to produce energy

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23

Obligate aerobe

Requires oxygen for cellular respiration

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24

Obligate anaerobe

Oxygen is lethal to this organism; uses fermentation

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25

Facultative anaerobe

Can use oxygen or fermentation to perform cell functions

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26

Thiomargarita namibiensis

Largest bacterium; proteobacteria that can be seen with the naked eye, found on the coast of Namibia

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27

Helicobacter pylori

Causes stomach ulcers; discovered by Barry Marshall who drank a culture to prove his point

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28

Barry Marshall

Drank a culture of Helicobacter to prove it caused stomach ulcers

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29

Treponema pallidum

Causes syphilis; spirochete

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30

Borrelia burgorferi

Causes lyme disease; spirochete

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31

Streptomyces spp.

Found in soil, used to develop antibiotics; gram positive

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32

Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax; gram positive

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33

Streptococcus pyogenes

Causes strep and necrotizing fasciitis; gram positive

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34

Extremophile

Microscopic organisms that thrive in extreme conditions

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35

Halophile

Salt loving archaea

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36

Thermophile

Heat loving archaea

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37

Psychrophile

Cold loving archaea

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38

Mesophile

Middle loving archaea

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39

Symbiosis

an ecological relationship between organisms that live in close and intimate contact

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40

Symbiont

Smaller participant in symbiosis

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41

Host

Larger participant in symbiosis

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42

Mutualism

Both parties benefit

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43

Commensalism

One party benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed

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44

Parasitism

One party benefits and the other is harmed

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45

How can some archaeal cells withstand such extreme conditions

They all have unique adaptations which help them sustain themselves in extreme conditions. Some of them include unique ways to harvest energy, endospores, and capsules

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46

What cell wall structure dictates the Gram stain result of a bacterium

The thickness of the peptidoglycan layers found in bacteria

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47

Endospores

formed in harsh condition, totem of undying for bacteria

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48

How is genetic diversity generated in prokaryotes

Through mutations, transfer of DNA from another cell, and absorption of DNA from outside sources

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