APUSH Key Terms (part 1)

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Bering Land Bridge (1)

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329 Terms

1

Bering Land Bridge (1)

connects sea between Russia and Alaska that is believed to have been crossed by the original immigrants from Asian to the Americas - probably crossed by walking when it was frozen over or canoes

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2

Cahokia (1)

mississippi river valley, largest settlement in that region and government was led by powerful chieftains who centralized the government and engaged in extensive trade networks

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3

Iroquois Confederacy (1)

group of five and later six tribes that created organizational/political skills that led them to also create a strong military alliance that was a threat to both Europeans and Native Americans

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4

Aztec Empire (1)

city of technochlatan was conquered by Spaniards, advance systems of language and numbers, around the yucatan peninsula

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5

Mayan Empire (1)

relied heavily on maize (although all of them did), around present day Guatemala, no one knows why or how it disappeared

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6

Incan Empire (1)

big civilization in present day Peru, also overtaken by the spaniards

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7

Columbus (2)

italian explorer financed by Ferdinand and Isabella to find a route to india, mistakenly found the caribbean and spoke of the wealth in the Americas and sent more people there

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8

Columbian Exchange (2)

exchange of diseases, animals, crops, and enslaved people

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9

Atlantic World (2)

sugar and enslaved people exchanged over the three continents of America, Europe, and Asia

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10

Cortes (2)

spanish conquistador who overthrew the aztec city of technochlatan - able to secure South America for the Castile crown

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11

Consquistadors (2)

violent and brutal spanish leaders who would treat the Native Americans badly - led military expeditions in Americas

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12

Repartimiento (2)

took colonization further by demanding work from the native people living in spanish inhabited areas - robbed people of their own economic success and took away their freedom

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13

Encomienda (2)

system in which Spanish conquistadors were granted a portion of land and whichever native americans lived there were subjugated to their religion and forced to work for them - brutal conditions

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14

Bartolomé de Las Casas (2)

priest guy who believed that the natives should be treated better and that the spanish monarchy would not approve - however he advocated for the use of enslaved africans in their place

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15

Protestant Reformation (2)

ended supremacy of the Catholic Church and ended supremacy of Catholic Church and resulted in establishment of Protestant churches - Martin Luther and John Calvin

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16

Anglican Church (2)

Church of england that the king created and was practiced in some colonies

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17

Spanish Armada (2)

defeat of this by england is what sparked english competing and settling in the americas

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18

Roanoke (2)

would have been the first official english settlement if everyone had not mysteriously disappeared

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19

Richard Hakluyt (3)

argued for colonies on the basis of new markets and alleviation of poverty and unemployment

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20

Joint Stock Company (3)

basically how Jamestown was founded, group of investors who invested a lot of money in the founding of Jamestown to profit, but if Jamestown didn't succeed, they wouldn't lose money because they were all in it together

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21

Jamestown (3)

first English settlement in Virginia, founded by a joint-stock company and consisted of mostly wealthy white male landowners

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22

Algonquins (3)

Native Americans who struck alliances with the French and participated in the fur trade

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23

John Smith/Tobacco (3)

John Smith helped found and govern Jamestown through rigid discipline, strengthened defenses, and the encouragement of farming, tobacco was the main source of revenue for the colony and prevented everyone from starving in hard times

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24

Pilgrims (3)

people who founded Plymouth, Massachusetts and came from England to start a model religious community

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25

Mayflower Compact (3)

first American determination of self-government for Plymouth, Massachusetts

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26

Puritans (3)

also known as separatists, people who separated from the Anglican church and were led by Martin Luther

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27

Massachusetts Bay (3)

used as a model religious community, mostly settled by families, needed to be a part of the church to vote etc.

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28

John Winthrop (3)

governor of Massachusetts Bay colony and was important to forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy - "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world

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29

Anne Hutchinson (3)

woman who preached to men and women and was banished because she was challenging the ministers who believed God could only speak to them

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30

Roger Williams (3)

Puritan minister in Massachusetts Bay whose challenges to Puritan orthodoxy led to his banishment from the colony in 1635

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31

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (3)

a constitution-like document that established the government of the Colony of Connecticut - created an annual assembly of legislators and provided for the election of a governor

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32

Proprietary Colony (3)

a colony directly ruled by a monarch according to the laws of England - many colonies changed to royal colonies so the King could have more control of the colonists

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33

Maryland/Lord Baltimore (3)

founded as a haven for catholics but was religiously tolerant because he knew his own religion would be a minority in the colony

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34

Headright System (3)

land grant program designed to attract settlers - offered to settlers who would come and work the land - directly impacted the growth of indentured servitude

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35

Quakers (3)

pacifists in pennsylvania led by Sir William Penn, had peaceful trade with native americans, were peaceful people in general and somewhat progressive because they didn't have just one ruling person

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36

African Slaves (3)

packed into ships in awful conditions, replaced white indentured servants as the cultivation of agriculture grew in America, justified as slaves because people looked as them as ⅔ of a person, part of the trans-atlantic slave trade

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37

Indentured Servants (3)

moved to America and worked off their debt which was something they would not have previously been able to do, eventually revolted and were widely replaced by enslaved Africans

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38

Pequot War (3)

saw the elimination of the Pequot in New England - exemplary of the Puritan use of genocide towards Native Americans

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39

Metacom's War (3)

war of Native Americans against English settlers when the English kept moving into their land - colonists won with help of the Mohawks and were able to expand

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40

Bacon's Rebellion (3)

caused because grab for Native American lands was denied - revolt of indentured servants against the Jamestown governor which led to the usage of enslaved Africans because they noticed there were too many free white men in the colony

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41

Coureurs de Bois (3)

French fur-trappers who established trading posts throughout North America - fur trade wreaked havoc on the health and folkways of their Native American trading partners - independent traders

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42

Pueblo Revolt (3)

Pueblo native Americans revolted against the Spanish who were taking their territory and it shows they fought back because it was effective until years later the Spanish came back and conquered them

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43

John Peter Zenger (4)

newspaper printer and using the press he protested the power of the royal governor and was put on trial for treason - however the importance was that it led to seditious libel against the government being permitted if it was true

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44

Triangle Trade (4)

trade between America, Europe, and Africa with sugar and Enslaved Africans

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45

Natural Rights (4)

John Locke believed every human had a right from the CREATOR to life, liberty, and property from birth

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46

Enlightenment (4)

Europe's shift towards valuing sciences and fact over religion and faith, many philosophers and thinkers present

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47

Middle Passage (4)

brutal passage between Africa and the Americas with ships carrying many enslaved Africans in awful conditions which many would not survive

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48

Stono Rebellion (4)

big slave revolt with significance because it shows Africans tried to fight back - almost everyone was killed but they burned a lot

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49

Salem Witch Trials (4)

witches being burned - possible reason is that people were looking for someone to blame for chaos - women were the victims + sexism/misogyny

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50

Mercantilism (4)

basically the idea that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world (and there was because wealth was gold and silver) and that a colony/country should be exporting more than they import

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51

Navigation Acts (4)

required that all European goods that were sent to any of the colonies had to go through England first in order to make sure that all foreign imports to the colonies were paying taxes on those goods

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52

Capitalism (4)

system of economic production based on private ownership of property

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53

First Great Awakening (4)

people suddenly going back to religion in the colonies and discouraging enlightenment ideals

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54

Albany Plan of Union (4)

Benjamin Franklin hoped to unite the colonies under one government - Albany Congress rejected it but it paved the way for future unification

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55

French & Indian War (Seven Years' War) (5)

war between the French and the British that sparked the revolution and plunged British into debt

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56

Pontiac's Rebellion (5)

native americans able to fight back against colonization + deterioration of relations between GB and colonies

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57

Loyalist (5)

colonists who remained loyal to Britain

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58

Republicanism (5)

alternative to monarchy - limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people

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59

Sugar Act of 1764 (5)

passed by Parliament to raise funds for depleted British treasury and to curtail colonists' smuggling of non-British sugar and molasses to avoid import tariffs

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60

Currency Act of 1764 (5)

prohibited the printing and issuance of paper money by Colonial legislatures, set up fines and penalties for members of Colonial government who disobeyed

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61

Stamp Act of 1765 (5)

imposed tax on all papers and official documents in American colonies, though not in England

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62

Stamp Act Congress (5)

passed a "declaration of rights and grievances" which claimed that American colonists were equal to all other British citizens

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63

Sons of Liberty (5)

rallied support for colonial resistance through petitions, assemblies, and propaganda

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64

"No taxation without representation" (5)

protested taxation without representation, and stated that without colonial representation in the Parliament, Parliament could not tax colonists

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65

Declaratory Act (5)

british parliament asserted right to make laws binding in colonies in all cases - reaction to the failure of the stamp act

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66

Townshend Duties of 1767 (5)

taxed colonial imports of paper, paint, glass, and tea to then pay the salaries of royal governors, judges, and other officials

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67

Boston Massacre 1770 (5)

colonists threw snowballs at British and British soldiers shot and killed around 10 people - further incensed colonists and roused them to fight for independence

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68

Tea Act of 1773 (5)

granted BEIC right to all control over trade and delivery with tea - colonists angered because they believed tea act was a tactic to gain colonial support for the already enforced tax

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69

Boston Tea Party (5)

first major act of defiance to British rule over the colonists

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70

Daughters of Liberty (5)

helped produce homespun cloth for colonists to wear instead of british textiles - economic and cultural impact on American society - paved the way for later women's groups that did even more to help

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71

Regulator Movement (5)

uprising in provincial north carolina in which citizens took up arms against colonial officials whom they viewed as corrupt - "to be governed by law, and not by the will of officers" - brought together a previously divided north carolina and created anti-british unity during the revolution

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72

Quebec Act 1774 (5)

recognized catholicism which upset colonists - allowed French Catholics to obtain good jobs in government

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73

Intolerable Acts 1774 (5)

series of measures passed in retaliation for Boston Tea Party - closing port of boston, revoking rights in massachusetts colonial charter, expanding quartering act

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74

First Continental Congress 1774 (5)

meeting of delegates from 12/13 (not georgia) in philadelphia where they decided to boycott British goods unless british parliament rescinded intolerable acts

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75

Somerset Decision 1772 (5)

helped launch movements to abolish slavery in England and US - enslaved person escaped and was brought to Britain where he met abolitionist group

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76

Lexington and Concord (5)

marked the start of American independence "shot heard round the world" - persuaded many Americans to support independence

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77

George III (5)

British king in power at the time of the revolution

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78

Continental Congress 1775 (5)

meeting of delegates from colonies to form provisional government together to make decisions about war with Britain over American independence

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79

Thomas Jefferson/Declaration of Independence (5)

democratic republican and main writer of the declaration of independence - directed at British king in 1776 and proclamation of freedom - ambassador to France

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80

George Washington (5)

general who led the continental army to victory

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81

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation (5)

promised freedom to any indentured servants, enslaved Africans, or others held in bondage so long as they were willing to bear arms for British troops fighting against American forces during Revolutionary war

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82

Bunker Hill (5)

British defeated Americans but colonial forces inflicted significant casualties against the enemy - battle provided them with an importance confidence boost during the Siege of Boston

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83

Thomas Paine (5)

wrote common sense and united revolution force - reflected enlightenment era ideals

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84

Common Sense (5)

document arguing for independence and revolution

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85

Articles of Confederation (5)

weak sense of central government which DR liked because it gave a lot of freedom but was ineffective because rebellions could fly - weaknesses: congress had no power to tax, no power to regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and there was no executive branch to enforce anything passed by congress

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86

Saratoga (5)

turning point - colonists won and French decided to support colonies with money, troops, and ships

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87

Yorktown (5)

battle where the British finally surrendered to the Americans - besieged cornwallis

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88

Treaty of Paris 1783 (5)

officially ended the revolutionary war when British and Colonists met in paris - formally recognized US as an independent nation

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89

Democracy (6)

voting by the people

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90

Newburgh Conspiracy (6)

military trying to take over the government and Washington hated that - resulted from congress being unable to meet financial obligations to military

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91

Shay's Rebellion (6)

poor white farmers revolted against the government and tried to overthrow - stemmed from post-rev depression and shortage of money that left farmers in danger of losing their land as a result of their failure to pay debts and taxes

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92

Northwest Ordinance 1787 (6)

established government for Northwest territory, outlined process for admitting new state to Union, forbade slavery in northwest territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality o fslavery once statehood had been established

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93

Treaty of Fort Stanwix (6)

treaty signed by US and pro British Iroquois granting Ohio country to Americans

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94

Republican Motherhood (6)

philosophy that women should be educated so they can have educated sons

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95

Judith Sargent Murray (6)

early advocate of women's equality, access to education, and the right to control their earnings

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96

Constitutional Convention 1787 (6)

purpose was to propose amendments to the Articles of Confederation - instead it designed a new plan of government, the US constitution

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97

The Virginia Plan (6)

proposed creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population (HR)

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98

The New Jersey Plan (6)

proposed one vote for each state regardless of population(s)

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99

The Great Compromise (Kentucky Plan) (6)

plan for house of representatives based on population and senate comprised of two people per state - something had to go through the HR and S to get approved

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100

3/5 Compromise (6)

counted enslaved people as ⅗ of a person - this benefited the southern states who had a higher population of enslaved people and gave them a bigger representation in House of Representatives

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