Respiration

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2 types of respiration

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1

2 types of respiration

Internal and external

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2

Pulmonary capillaries

Surround the alveoli

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3

How many sets of branches in the lungs?

24

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4

What are the 2 zones of the lungs?

Conducting and respiratory

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5

What is the function of the conducting zone of the lungs?

Way of transporting gases into the respiratory zone

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6

What makes up the conducting zone?

Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

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7

What number branch is the bronchi?

11

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8

What branch is the 0?

Trachea

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9

What supports the bronchi?

Cartilage

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10

What supports the bronchioles?

No cartilage Rely on tissue around them and their elastic nature to keep them open Much more subject to contraction

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11

Why is it more efficient if we breathe through our nose?

Small hairs help filter and trap particles As the air is moving through it creates a turbulent type condition - smaller particles are more likely to drop our or get trapped because of this

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12

Why is it beneficial for air to warm to our body temperature?

Warming gas helps prevent the formation of bubbles

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13

What can carry more gas warm or cold air?

Cold

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14

What stops the lower airways from drying out?

As air passes through it becomes humidified and equilibrated with water vapour

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15

What controls the contraction of bronchi?

Smooth muscle underneath the cartilage lining the outside of bronchi under the control of para/sympathetic innervation

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16

Epithelia mucous gland

Secretes mucus onto surface of bronchi to help trap particles

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17

Function of elastic tissue in the airways

Recoil and helps to support

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18

Function of ciliated epithelium in the lumen of the airways?

Helps direct mucus out of the lungs towards the throat to move small particles out of the lungs

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19

Goblet cells

Produce mucus

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20

Function of sensory nerve endings between epithelial cells in bronchi and bronchioles

Help detect noxious chemicals in the airway e.g. smoke

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21

Diameter of bronchioles

Less than 1mm

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22

What keeps bronchioles open?

Tethering of tissue around them - elastic tissue connection helps keep them open

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23

What breaks down in COPD?

The elastic tissue surrounding the bronchioles subjecting them to collapse

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24

Why do the bronchioles have proportionally more smooth muscle cells compared to the bronchi?

Controlling the airway diameter is more important

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25

How many alveoli?

300 million per lung

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26

Surface area of alveoli?

100 m2

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27

How many biological membrane does oxygen have to diffuse across?

5

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28

Inspiration pressure gradients

Atmospheric pressre is greater than the pressure inside the alveoli so gas moves down the pressure gradient and into the lungs

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29

Expiration pressure gradients

Pressure in alveoli is greater than atmospheric pressure so gas moves down the pressure gradient and out of the lungs

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30

What is the primary muscle of inspiration?

Diaphragm

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31

What muscles does quiet inspiration involve?

Primary

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32

What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration?

Contracts and moves down

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33

ICE ECI

Internal contract expiration External contract inspiration

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34

Boyle's Law

P1V1=P2V2

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35

What muscles are involved in forced inspiration?

Secondary muscles

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36

Scalene muscle function in forced inspiration?

Attach to top of rib cage - contraction helps move the rib cage up and forward

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37

Function of sternocleidomastoids in forced inspiration?

Attach to the sternum - and helps to lift the sternum up and forwards

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38

What is the function of neck and back muscles during forced inspiration?

Pull pelvic girdle up

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39

Function of elastic tissue in quiet expiration?

Recoil of the elastic tissue returns the lungs to their original size

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40

Function of abdominal muscles in forced expiration?

Pull diaphragm up

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41

Pleura

Double-layered membrane surrounding each lung

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42

Parietal pleura

Outer layer of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall

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43

Visceral pleura

Inner layer of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue

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44

Pleural cavity

Between parietal and visceral pleura

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45

What is the pleural cavity filled with?

Serous fluid

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46

Function of pleural cavity?

Allows lung and chest wall to move over each and prevent them from sticking together Enables free expansion and collapse of lungs Helps set resting lung volume

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47

Pneumothorax

Collapsed lung - air in the pleural cavity Intrapleural space is at atmopsheric pressure and so force keeping lungs inflated is lost Elastic nature will take over and lungs will collapse

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48

Is the pressure in the intrapleural space greater or less than atmospheric pressure?

Less

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49

Compliance

Measure of how distensible the lungs are - how elastic they are

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50

Concentration =

Change in volume/ change in pressure

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51

As you inspire, what happens to intrapleural pressure?

Becomes more negative

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52

Low compliance

Large pressure chaneg and small volume change - more work needed to expand the lungs

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53

Pulmonary fibrosis

Build up of structural tissue in the lungs - more rigid so harder to expand Lower compliance of the lungs

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54

High compliance

Small pressure change induces a large volume change

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55

What can high compliance lead to?

Problems when expiring Emphysema/COPD Lost some elastic properties as a result of breakdown of tissue Airways can collapse Harder to breathe out

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56

What are the 2 components of elastic recoil in the lungs?

Anatomical and surface tension

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57

Surface tension in the lungs

Air/water interface - water molecules tend to be pulled into the body of water

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58

Laplace's equation

P=2T/r

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59

What produces surfactant?

Type 2 pneumocytes

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60

Surfactant

Chemical produced in the lungs to maintain the surface tension of the alveoli and keep them from collapsing

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61

What is surfactant composed of?

90% phospholipids and 10% proteins

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62

How does surfactant prevent alveolar collapse?

Decreasing surface tension Inncreasing compliance

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63

How does surfacant affect rate of inflation?

SLows

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64

Production of surfactant decreases and causes what?

Pneumonia

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65

What happens to surfactant in pneumonia?

Production decreases

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66

What does surfactant prevent?

Oedema Reduces fluid entering alveoli

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67

How are surface tensions balanced out between large and small alveoli?

Small alveoli have a higher density of surfactant compared to large

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68

Dead space

Volume of lungs not involved in gas exchange

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69

Anatomical dead space

Conducting zone volume - first 16 generations of airways

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70

How much inspired air volume is dead space?

30%

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71

At rest how many ml of air is in anatomical dead space?

150ml

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72

Tidal volume

Amount of air we breathe in and out in one breath

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73

Average tidal volume

500ml

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74

Physiological dead space

Volume of lungs not participating in gas exchange Conducting zone + non-functional areas of respiratory zone Normally physiological dead space and anatomical dead space are almost identical

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75

2 types of dead space in lungs

Anatomical and physiological

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76

Vital capacity

Maximum amount of air we can breathe in and out

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77

Residual volume

Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation

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78

Total lung capacity

Residual volume + vital capacity

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79

Forced expiratory volume

How much air can be forced out of the lungs in 1 second

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80

Expiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation

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81

Vital capacity =

TV + IRV + ERV

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82

Inspiratory reserve volume

Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation

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83

Functional residual capacity

Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration

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84

FRC =

ERV + RV

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85

Inspiratory capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration

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86

What happens to tidal volume during exercise?

Increases

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87

What happens to IRV and ERV if tidal volume increases?

IRV and ERV must decrease

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88

How to measure residual volume?

Helium dilution Measure the helium concentration before and after

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89

Relationship between flow of air and pressure gradient?

Flow of air is proportional to the pressure gradient

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90

Relationship between flow of air and resistance?

Flow of air is inversely proportional to resistance

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91

Poiseuille's Law

Airway resistance is proportional to gas viscosity and the length of the tube but is inversely proportional to the 4th power of the radius

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92

Relationship between resistance and radius?

R = 1/r^4

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93

4 factors that impact on airway resistance

Airway diameter Mucus secretion Oedema Airway collapse

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94

How does mucus secretion affect airway resistance?

Increased mucus secretion will reduce airway diameter and increase resistance

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95

How does oedema impact on airway resistance?

Increased fluid retention in lung tissue will cause swelling and narrowing of the airways increasing resistance

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96

How does airway collapse impact on airway resistance?

Forced expiration - narrows airway - increased resistance

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97

Parasympathetic control of the bronchial smooth muscle

ACh os released from the vagus nerve and acts on muscarinic receptors leading to constriction

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98

Sympathetic control of the bronchial smooth muscle

Norepinephrine is released from nerves leading to dilation

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99

How does epinephrine affect bronchial smooth muscle?

Leads to dilation

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100

How does histamine affect bronchial smooth muscle?

Histamine is released during inflammatory processes and leads to constriction

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