Biology - How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What are the two kinds of muscle fibers?

1 / 118

Tags and Description

Biology

9th

119 Terms

1

What are the two kinds of muscle fibers?

slow and fast muscle fibers

New cards
2

The percentage of types of fibers depends on:

the muscle and person

New cards
3

True or False: training can turn one runner into another

False

New cards
4

another name for slow muscle fibers:

slow-twitch fibers

New cards
5

most marathon runners have ___% slow fibers

80

New cards
6

what are the slow muscle fibers abundant in?

mitochondria and myoglobin molecules

New cards
7

What kind of color do myoglobin molecules give slow muscle fibers?

a reddish color

New cards
8

slow muscle fibers perform best in what kind of exercises?

endurance exercises

New cards
9

fast muscle fibers perform best in what kind of exercises?

short, intense exercises

New cards
10

most sprinters have ___% fast fibers

60

New cards
11

slow muscle fibers use ___ respiration, while fast muscle fibers use ____ respiration

aerobic, anaerobic

New cards
12

fast fibers have less ____ and ____, but produce this:

mitochondria, myoglobin, lactate

New cards
13

catabolic pathways:

break down energy

New cards
14

respiration is the transferring of ___ from ____ to ____.

hydrogen, glucose, oxygen

New cards
15

net reaction of cellular respiration:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP + Heat)

New cards
16

reactions involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another:

redox reactions

New cards
17

the loss of electrons:

oxidation

New cards
18

the addition of electrons:

reduction

New cards
19

what does OIL RIG stand for?

oxidation it loses

reduction it gains

New cards
20

ionic bonds involve the ____ transfer of electrons

complete

New cards
21

the electron donor is also known as the:

reducing agent

New cards
22

the electron acceptor is also known as the:

oxidizing agent

New cards
23

why are carbs and fats important fuels?

have lots of electrons and hudrogens

New cards
24

the three stages of cellular respiration are?

glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain

New cards
25

this pathway is found in ALL organisms:

glycolysis

New cards
26

glycolysis is the breaking down of what molecule?

glucose

New cards
27

what gives glycolysis energy?

ATP

New cards
28

there are __ steps in glycolysis

10

New cards
29

what are the two phases of glycolysis?

the energy investment phase and the energy payoff phase

New cards
30

how many ATP molecules are invested in glycolysis?

2

New cards
31

in the energy investment phase, glucose is broken down into:

2 three carbon G3P molecules

New cards
32

what does G3P stand for?

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

New cards
33

in the energy payoff phase, how many ATP molecules are produced?

4

New cards
34

in the energy payoff phase, the 2 G3P molecules are converted to what?

2 three carbon pyruvate molecules

New cards
35

energy investment phase equation:

glucose + 2ATP → 2G3P

New cards
36

energy payoff phase equation:

2G3P → 2 pyruvate, 2H2O, 2NADH, 4ATP

New cards
37

net reaction of glycolysis:

glucose → 2 pyruvate, 2H2O, 2NADH, 2ATP

New cards
38

how much of glucose’s energy does glycolysis release?

less than a quarter

New cards
39

glycolysis does not require this molecule, making it:

oxygen, anaerobic

New cards
40

mitochondria are organelles that:

carry out cellular respiration

New cards
41

mitochondrian are - __ long

1, 10, um

New cards
42
<p>number one:</p>

number one:

cristae (inner membrane)

New cards
43
<p>number two:</p>

number two:

outer membrane

New cards
44
<p>number three:</p>

number three:

intermembrane space

New cards
45
<p>number four:</p>

number four:

matrix (liquid part)

New cards
46

why does the inner membrane have so many folds?

increases surface area and ability to produce ATP

New cards
47

the mitochondrial matrix contains:

enzymes, DNA, ribsomes

New cards
48

the step between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle is:

conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

New cards
49

when pyruvate loses a carbon, what is it release as?

CO2

New cards
50

after pyruvate loses a carbon, the remaining two combine with what to form acetyl CoA?

coenzyme A

New cards
51

acetyl CoA stands for:

acetyl coenzyme A

New cards
52

equation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA:

pyruvate, NAD+, coenzyme A → acetyl CoA, NADH, CO2

New cards
53

for each glucose molecule that entered glycolysis, these many acetyl CoA molecules enter the citric acid cycle:

2

New cards
54

these enzymes remove two hydrogens from the substrate:

dehydrogenases

New cards
55

what do dehydrogenases give NAD+?

two electrons and a proton, the other proton is released as a hydrogen ion

New cards
56

the structure of NAD+ is 2 ___ joined together by their ____

nucleotides, phosphate group

New cards
57

other names for the citric acid cycle include:

the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the krebs cycle

New cards
58

where does the citric acid cycle take place in the mitochondria?

the matrix

New cards
59

the citric acid cycle has __ steps

8

New cards
60

in the citric acid cycle, the carbons from acetyl CoA bond to __ to form __

four carbon oxaloacetate, six carbon citrate

New cards
61

what is the role of coenzyme A in the citric acid cycle?

helps the two carbons enter the cycle and is recycled

New cards
62

the citric acid cycle is called a cycle because oxaloacetate ___ to repeat the cycle.

regenerates

New cards
63

citric acid cycle equation (full equation with 2 puruvate)

2 pyruvate → 4CO2, 6NADH, 2FADH2, 2ATP

New cards
64

the citric acid cycle completes what?

the breakdown of glucose

New cards
65

the final stage of cellular respiration is:

oxidative phosphorylation

New cards
66

the two parts of oxidative phosphorylation are:

the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis

New cards
67

where does oxidative phosphorylation occur in the mitochondria?

the inner mitochondrial membrane

New cards
68

each electron transport chain has:

3 main multiprotein complexes and 2 mobile carrier proteins

New cards
69

what molecules carry the electrons extracted from food?

NADH and FADH2

New cards
70

in the electron transport chain, what atom takes the electrons at the end?

a highly electronegative oxygen atom

New cards
71

the production of ATP occurs from this:

energy released from diffusion of H+ ions from the intermembrane space to the matrix

New cards
72

the two functions of the electron transport chain include easing the fall of electrons from ___ to ___, and to release ___ ions into the ______

food, oxygen, H+, intermembrane space

New cards
73

chemiosmosis is an ____ mechanism

energy-coupling

New cards
74

chemiosmosis involves using the energy released by the ___ of __ ions used to fuel the __ of __ to create __

diffusion, H+, phosphorylation, ADP, ATP

New cards
75

oxidative phosphorylation makes around __ ATP

34

New cards
76

1 glucose molecule → __ ATP molecules

38

New cards
77

most electrons’ route throughout cellular respiration:

food → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen

New cards
78

efficiency of respiration is __%

40

New cards
79

the two different kinds of phosphorylation are:

substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation

New cards
80

this kind of phosphorylation involves an enzyme DIRECTLY giving a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP

substrate-level phosphorylation

New cards
81

substrate-level phosphorylation produces how many ATP molecules during cellular respiration?

6

New cards
82

this kind of phosphorylation involves an enzyme transferring an inorganic phosphate from the outside solution to ADP:

oxidative phosphorylation

New cards
83

oxidative phosphorylation creates how many ATP molecules during cellular respiration?

around 34

New cards
84

in aerobic conditions, the citric acid cycle occurs after glycolysis. in anaerobic conditions, what happens after glycolysis?

fermentation

New cards
85

Fermentation regulates the supply of this molecule in order to keep glycolysis going:

NAD+

New cards
86

the two kinds of fermentation are:

alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation

New cards
87

in this kind of fermentation, pyruvate is converted into ethanol in two steps:

alcohol fermentation

New cards
88

the first step in alcohol fermentation involves the release of __, leading to the two carbon compound ____

CO2, acetaldehyde

New cards
89

in the second step of alcohol fermentation, acetaldehyde is reduced to what molecule?

ethanol

New cards
90

alcohol fermentation equation:

pyruvate + NADH → ethanol + CO2 + NAD+

New cards
91

examples of alcohol fermentation include:

bacteria, yeast, beer

New cards
92

in this kind of fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactate:

lactic acid fermentation

New cards
93

there is ___ step in lactic acid fermentation:

1

New cards
94

during lactic acid fermentation, what happens to pyruvate?

it is reduced by NADH to become lactate

New cards
95

examples of lactic acid fermentation:

cheese, yogurt, strenuous exercise

New cards
96

these organisms require oxygen for respiration:

obligate aerobes

New cards
97

these organisms require oxygen-free conditions:

obligate anaerobes

New cards
98

these organisms can make energy with or without oxygen:

facultative anaerobes

New cards
99

carbohydrates are ___ into ___, which enters __

hydrolyzed, glucose, glycolysis

New cards
100

Proteins are ___ into amino acids to make their own proteins, but excess ____ are converted into _____ of __ or _____

hydrolyzed, amino acids, intermediates, glycolysis, citric acid cycle

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5539 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(29)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard793 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard97 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 98 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)