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Anadiplosis

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English

102 Terms

1

Anadiplosis

when the end of one line is repeated to begin the next Ex: Wherein I die, not live ; for life is straight, Straight as a line, and ever tends to Thee,

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2

Apostrophe

direct address to an abstraction, inanimate object, or person who is not present

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3

Asynartete

a poem or stanza that contains two different kinds of meter

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4

Asyndeton

The omission of a conjunction, often within a sentence. Often used to make a sentence fit meter.

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5

Assonance

repeated vowel sounds

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6

Bildungsroman

coming of age story

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7

Chiasmus

words or concepts repeated in purposefully inverted order

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8

Conceit

extended metaphor. Primary literary device of the Metaphysical Poets

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9

Consonance

repeated consonant sounds

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10

Cumulative Sentence

an independent clause followed by a large number of modifiers

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11

Denouement

the resolution of a story

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12

Didactic

an adjective describing types of literature intended to impart a moral lesson. Fell out of favor in modern literature.

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13

Enallage

the substitution of one grammatical form for another Ex: She is to be wived.

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14

Epic simile

a simile developed and explained across a series of lines

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15

Epithet

a nickname or sobriquet, often used as an invective

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16

Epigram

a pithy saying or remark Ex: An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

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17

Epiphany

a sudden realization, moment of clarity

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18

Epizeuxis

the repetition of words of phrases in immediate succession within a sentence

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19

English/Shakespearian Sonnet

14 lines divided into 3 quatrains + a couplet

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20

Irony

when what is written signifies the opposite

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21

Verbal irony

when what is said is opposite of what is intended

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22

Situational irony

a contrast between what is expected and what happens

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23

Dramatic irony

the reader knows something the characters do not know

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24

Jeremiad

A long, mournful, sometimes passionate, complaint or lamentation. Named for the biblical prophet Jeremiah. Regularly applied to non-religious text.

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25

Joycean prose

stream of consciousness, laden with wordplay

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26

Kafkaesque

used to describe a surreal, nightmarish milieu that produces disorder and resignation

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27

Litotes

an understatement, often used to create irony

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28

Malapropism

The mistaken use of a word in place of a similar sounding one

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29

Metonymy

When a term is used for something similar to what is intended

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30

Mise en abyme

a story within a story, a framed story, particularly that emphasizes or summarizes the larger story Ex: "The Haunted Palace" in "The Fall of the House of Usher"

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31

Motif

repeated element that supports the theme of a work

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32

Peripeteia

a sudden reversal of fortunes

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33

Petrarchan Sonnet

14 lines divided into an octave and sestet

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34

Polysyndeton

repetition of conjunctions in rapid succession Ex: We have ships and men and money.

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35

Rhyme

effect of having words with similar vowel sounds

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36

Slant rhyme

words with similar, but not identical sounds

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37

Feminine rhyme

a rhyme between stressed syllables followed by unstressed syllables

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38

Internal rhyme

rhymes involving words in the middle of lines

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39

Eye rhyme

a similarity between spelling, but not sound Ex: Love / Move

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40

Masculine rhyme

rhyme of final stressed syllables

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41

Rich rhyme

rhyme produced not only by vowels, but also consonants (often homophones)

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42

Synecdoche

when a term is used to represent the whole

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43

Tmesis

the separation of a compound word with intervening words Ex: Shove it back any-old-where in the pile

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44

Telegraphic sentence

a sentence of five or less words

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45

Volta

the "turn" in a poem, when the tone or ideas suddenly shift

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46

Zeugma

a word applies to two others in different senses Ex: John and his license expired last week

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47

Light verse

poetry about trivial, amusing, unimportant things Ex: TS Eliot's Cats

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48

Free verse

no rules, but still contains some sort of structure

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49

Blank verse

contains meter, lacks rhymes

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50

Alliterative verse

the organizing principle for lines is alliteration

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51

Rhyming verse

contains meter and rhyme

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52

Prose

not in verse, structure doesn't matter. Book writing.

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53

Foot

a unit of syllables in a poem

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54

Iamb

unstressed, stressed

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55

Trochee

stressed, unstressed

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56

Spondee

stressed, stressed

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57

Common Meter

a line of iambic followed by a line of iambic trimeter

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58

Couplet

pairing of two lines

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59

Quatrain

pairing of four lines

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60

Allegory

type of narrative that uses characters and plot to depict abstract ideas and themes. Things represent more than they appear to on the surface, like morality

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61

Alliteration

a series of words that all start with the same letter or sound

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62

Allusion

a passing or indirect descriptive reference to something

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63

Anachronism

when something happens or is attributed to a different era than when it actually existed Ex: Cassius in Julius Caesar says that "the clock has stricken three," even though mechanical clocks had not been invented in 44 A.D.

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64

Anaphora

repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of a series of clauses or sentences Ex: Martin Luther King's 1963 "I Have A Dream" speech

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65

Anastrophe

figure of speech wherein the traditional sentence structure is reversed Ex: "Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing." — The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe

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66

Anthropomorphism

apply human traits or qualities to a non-human thing in a literal sense Ex: the servants of Beauty & the Beast

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67

Aphorism

universally accepted truth stated in a pithy way Ex: "To err is human, to forgive divine." — Alexander Pope

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68

Archetype

"universal symbol" that brings familiarity and context to a story. It can be a character, a setting, a theme, or an action. Archetypes represent feelings and situations that are shared across cultures and time periods, and are therefore instantly recognizable to any audience Ex: Superman is a heroic archetype

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69

Colloquialism

use of casual and informal language in writing, which can also include slang

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70

Cumulative Sentence ("loose sentence")

starts with an independent clause, but then has additional or modifying clauses Ex: "He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them--a quick shake, fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys." Sinclair Lewis, Arrowsmith

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71

Euphemism

indirect, "polite" way of describing something too inappropriate or awkward to address directly Ex: "put out to pasture" when an old person is forced to retire

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72

Exposition

narrative provides background information in order to help the reader understand what's going on

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73

Flashback

cuts to previous events that split up present-day scenes in a story, usually to build suspense toward a big reveal

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74

Foreshadowing

when the author hints at events yet to come in a story

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75

Frame story

any part of the story that "frames" another part of it Ex: The Turn of the Screw

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76

Hyperbole

exaggerated statement that emphasizes the significance of the statement's actual meaning Ex: "I'm so hungry I could eat a horse"

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77

Hypophora

similar to a rhetorical question, a person raises a question and answers it immediately themselves Ex: "Do you always watch for the longest day of the year and then miss it? I always watch for the longest day in the year and then miss it." — Daisy in The Great Gatsby

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78

Imagery

appeals to readers' senses through highly descriptive language

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79

In medias res

Latin term that means "in the midst of things," beginning a story without context Ex: The Illiad begins in the middle of the Trojan War

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80

Isocolon

two or more phrases or clauses have similar structure, rhythm, and length Ex: Veni, vidi, vici ("I came, I saw, I conquered")

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81

Juxtaposition

places dissimilar concepts side by side, and the profound contrast highlights their differences Ex: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times" Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens

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82

Metaphor

compares two similar things by saying that one of them is the other

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83

Onomatopoeia

word that sounds like what it represents

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84

Oxymoron

two contradictory words that describe one thing Ex: "Parting is such sweet sorrow." — Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare

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85

Paradox

statement that contradicts itself yet is true Ex: "War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength." George Orwell's 1984

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86

Personification

human traits applied to non-human things

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87

Point of view

mode of narration in a story

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88

Repetition

repeated words or phrases

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89

Satire

make fun of some aspect of human nature or society — usually through exaggeration, ridicule, or irony

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90

Simile

comparison using "like" or "as"

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91

Soliloquy

character speaking their thoughts aloud to themselves

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92

Symbolism

represent abstract concepts and ideas

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93

Tautology

sentence or short paragraph repeats a word or phrase, expressing the same idea twice Ex: Polonius: "What do you read, my lord?" Hamlet: "Words, words, words."

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94

Tone

writer's attitude towards the subject

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95

Tragicomedy

blend of tragedy and comedy

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96

Zoomorphism

take animal traits and assign them to anything that's not an animal, can be physical or figurative Ex: "busy bee," vampires turning into bats

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97

three feet

trimeter.

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98

four feet

tetrameter.

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99

five feet

pentameter.

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100

six feet

hexameter.

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