Psych 101 - Units 1, 2, and first half of 3

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Psychology

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Psychology

the study of mind and behavior

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Mind

perceptions, thoughts, memories, processes (information)

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Behavior

everything we do that can be directly observed

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HM case study

A patient who had extensive brain surgery to correct epileptic seizures which left him with severe anterograde amnesia; could not create new memories

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aneterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories

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retrograde amnesia

loss of memories from the past

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Clive Wearing

has both types of amnesia, 7 second memory

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Nativism

belief that people are born with some knowledge; associated with Plato

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Empircism

all knowledge comes from experience (tabula rasa theory, blank slate); associated with Aristotle

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Plato

believed in nativism

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Aristotle

believed in empircism

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Genie case study

The case of a young girl who was not exposed to language until 13 years old and could never fluently acquire it giving evidence for the critical period theory.

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Phrenology

Mental characteristics are determined by size and shape of skull; associated with Franz Joseph Gall (late 18th century)

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Franz Joseph Gall

founder of phrenology

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Paul Broca

discovered area in the brain (named for him) in the left frontal lobe responsible for language production

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Broca's area

part of brain in left frontal lobe responsible for speech production

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Hermann von Helmholtz

studied human reaction time; estimated the length of nerve impulse; physiology and psychology

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Wilhelm Wendt

established the first experimental psychology laboratory, used a form of introspection in which he asked subjects to use self-reflection and verbalize what they are experiencing

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Structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

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Introspection

examination of one's own thoughts and feelings

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Functionalism

A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish; associated with William James

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illusion

an error in the brain's perception or judgment

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Gestalt Psychology

a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts; explains how illusions work

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Cognitive Psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating; associated with Frederic Bartlett

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cognitive neuroscience

A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity; which parts of the brain control which processes; associated with Karl Lashley

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behavorial neuroscience

an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes

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evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection; associated with John Garcia

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William James

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment

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hysteria

example of how mental illness can translate into physical symptoms; first discovered by Jean-Marie Charcot and Pierre Janet

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Functional Neurological Disorder

physical symptoms with no physical explanation - mental illness plays a part

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Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist known for his work on the unconscious mind (repressed memories and urges). Father of psychoanalysis.

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Psychoanalysis

an attempt to bring the unconscious to the conscious mind; developed by Freud (shown as couch therapy in pop media)

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humanistic psychology

an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings (like Humanists); developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

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Pavlov

founder of classical conditioning while trying to study digestive system

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Pavlov's Dogs

First experiment that created and demonstrate the theory of classical conditioning

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classical conditioning

a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.

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John Watson

behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat; argued against Freud

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Behaviorism

the view that psychology should be an objective science and studies behavior without reference to mental processes

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B.F. Skinner

Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning; believed every behavior could be engineered through reinforcement

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operant conditioning

subject chooses an action, and it is followed by reinforcement or punishment

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Frederic Bartlett

experimentally demonstrated the reconstructive nature of memory; people remember how stories should have ended rather than the acutal ending

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Karl Lashley

Found that memory is not stored in just one place of the brain; tested on rats

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John Garcia

Researched taste aversion; showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance

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social psychology

study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another; associated with Norman Triplett

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cultural psychology

the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members

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Absolutism

psychology is the same regardless of culture

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Relativism

some aspects of mind/behavior change based on culture

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Margaret Mead

cultural anthropologist who helped support theories of relativism

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Complexity

humans (and the human brain) is complex and hard to study

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Variability

human behavior is varied and unpredictable

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Reactibility

humans change their behavior when they know observation is occuring

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Scientific Method

Theory → Hypothesis → Gather evidence → Modify theory accordingly (repeat)

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case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence the responses

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psychological tests

procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values

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objective tests

Tests that can be scored easily by machine, such as multiple-choice tests and selected-response tests

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projective tests

personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind (ex. Rorschach ink blot)

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Reliability

tests produce the same results regardless of location, time, or scorer

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test-retest reliability

using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency; people tend to do better the second time

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alternate forms reliability

using different varieties of the test to measure consistency between them

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Validity

The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure

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Power of a test

measurement of how many false negatives a test produces

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Surveys

Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions; prone to selection bias (voluntary response) and response bias (lying)

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correlational study

a research project designed to discover the degree to which two variables are related to each other

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experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

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placebo effect

the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior

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Correlation does not equal causation

correlation does not equal causation (this is very important)

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experimenter effect

tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study

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participants want to please

Participants may act in ways that they ordinarily would not

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single-blind study

study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group

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double-blind study

An experiment in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows whether the participant has received the treatment or the placebo

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inferential statistics

numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population; was this variation due to the variable or just chance

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longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period (same people over long time)

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cross-sectional study

A study in which a representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed at one specific time (different people at the same time)

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Ethics

Participants must have informed consent and little or no incentive

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Neurons

Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.

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cell body

Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm; keeps neuron alive

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Axon

A threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.

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Dendrites

Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.

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myelin sheath

a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons

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Nodes of Ranvier

gaps in the myelin sheath that allow for faster transmission of information

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motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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Interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs; control reflexes

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resting potential of a neuron

-70mV

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