Anatomy and Physiology Final Review

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Monocytes are involved with_____

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1

Monocytes are involved with_____

Being soldiers, “pacman”

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epiglottis

seperates respiratory tract from digestive tract

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distal

distance

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proximal

proximity

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medial

toward the middle of something

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lateral

to or on the side of something else

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superior

above

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inferior

below

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anterior

front

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posterior

back

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Frontal plane divides the body into

Anterior and posterior

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Transverse divides the body into

Superior and inferior

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Sagittal divides the body into

Lateral and medial

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Dorsal

Cranial and vertebral

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Ventral

Abdominopelvic, Thoracic

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Cranial

Brain

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Thoracic

Heart,lungs, nerves,tissues

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Stomach, intestines,spleen,kidney,etc

Abdominal

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Pelvic

Bladder,rectum

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Pleural

Just lungs

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Pericardial

Just your heart

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Epithelial tissue based on

Shape, thickness

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<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Simple Squamos (Alveoli in lungs)

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<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Simple Cuboidal (Kidneys)

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<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Simple Columnar (Digestive Tract)

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26

If you can draw a line through the nuclei, the tissue is _______ columnar

Simple

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27
<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Transitional tissue (Bladder)

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28

Transitional tissue lines the bladder because it ____

Stretches

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29
<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Pseudostratified Columnar (Bronchii)

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30

What do all connective tissues have in common?

Matrix

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<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Bone

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<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Blood

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<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Adipose

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<p>Which tissue?</p>

Which tissue?

Areolar

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35

Erythocytes (RBC) carry____

Oxygen

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36

Neutrophils are involved with _____

Bacteria

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37

Eosynophils are involved with ____

Parasites

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38

Basophils are involved with___

Histomine

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39

Lymphocytes are involved with ____

Immunity

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40

Layers of epidermis

Corneum, granular, spiny, basal

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41

In the corneum layer of the epidermis are _____ cells

Dead

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42

In the granular layer of the epidermis are ____

Granuals

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43

In the basal layer of the epidermis are _____ and _____ (the 2 M’s)

Melanocytes and mitosis

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44

What is found in the Dermis?

Organs of skin: blood vessels, hair, glands

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45

What is keratin?

Protective protein of skin in all layers of epidermis

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First degree burn

Red, pain

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Second degree burn

More red, pain, swelling

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Third degree burn

Black, waxy white, no pain because of numbness (damaged nerve endings)

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<p>Rule of 9’s for ___ (burns is the answer)</p>

Rule of 9’s for ___ (burns is the answer)

Burns

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50

ABCD Rules for moles/skin cancer

Asymetry

Border

Color

Diameter

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51

Osteoblasts vs Osteoclasts

Bone builders and Bone Breakers

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52

What is the epiphyseal line?

Growth plate

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How does the epiphyseal line change as we age?

Ossify (turns into bone)

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Male pelvis

Taller, narrow

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Female pelvis

Wider, broader

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Complete fractures __ (do/don’t) go through the entire bone

Do

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_____ fractures are when the bone is out of alignment with it’s other part/half.

Displaced

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58

Compound fractures go through the ____, while simple do not.

Skin

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In the _____ (male/female) pelvis, the tail bone cannot curve in because of the potential of a baby coming out when pregnant.

Female

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Bending limb/decreasing its angle

Flexion

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Straightening limb/increasing its angle

Extension

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What is the function of cartilage in the skeletal system?

Cushioning to prevent breaking down of bones (arthritis)

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63

Hold your arm up to the side

Abducting

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Bring arm back down to rest next to your torso

Adducting

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When you lift your shoulders

Elevation

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Hinge joint

Elbow and knee

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Ball and socket joint

Shoulder & Hip

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Saddle joint

Thumb

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Pivot joint

Radius / ulna, skull

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Condyloid joint

1st knuckle, wrist

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Fibrous/suture (not moveable) joint

Skull

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Function of bursa

Extra pillow

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Tendon

Muscle to bone

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Ligament

Bone to bone

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What causes osteoarthritis?

Breaking down of cartilage

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76

The quadriceps (anterior) are antagonists to the _____ (posterior)

Hamstrings

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77

Your triceps are antagonists to

Biceps

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78

When a muscle shortens what happens to the filaments at the sarcomere level?

Overlap to a greater degree

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Sitrated muscles

Skeletal and cardiac

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Involuntary muscle

Cardiac and smooth

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Why is calcium so important? (What does it do?)

Removes blocking action on thin filament

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<p>Cerebral Hemisphere</p>

Cerebral Hemisphere

Intellectual and emotional processing

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<p>Brain stem</p>

Brain stem

Extension of spinal cord, basic vital function

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The brainstem is in common with all ____

Animals

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<p>Cerebullum (Ballarina)</p>

Cerebullum (Ballarina)

Proper balance and smooth coordinated muscle movements

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86

As the diaphragm goes up, air goes ___

Out

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As the diaphragm goes down, air goes ___

In

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88

The diaphragm is ______ when it is up

Relaxed

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89

The diaphragm is _____ when it is down

Contracted

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90

Gas exchange (02 and C02) happen in the ______ in the lungs

Alveoli

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91

When the diaphragm contracts, pressure in the lungs ____, and volume in the lungs ____

Decreases, increases

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92

When the diaphragm relaxes, pressure in the lungs ______ and volume in the lungs _______

Increases, decreases

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93

Flexion + extension happen on the ____ plane

Sagittal

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94

Adduction + abduction happen on the _____ plane

Frontal

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95

Dendrites ___ information, while axon [terminals] _____ information

Receive, send

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96

The “gaps” between the myelin sheath (__________) are called _________

Schwann cells, Nodes of Ranvier

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97

6 parts of a reflex arc

  1. Stimulus

  2. Receptor (like the eyes)

  3. Sensory neuron

  4. Integration (CNS)

  5. Motor Neuron

  6. Effector organ (usually a muscle)

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98

DEpolarization- Sodium gates open, sodium ____, Action potential skyrockets to + 30

IN

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99

REpolarization- Sodium gates closed, Potassium gates __, potassium _, action potential plumits to -70

Open, OUT

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100

Hyperpolarization- Potassium gates remain ______, action potential drops to -90

Open

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