cmn exam 3

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concerned with the future and the external environment


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engage in more present tense concrete activities

  • must meet clearly stated goals and get results through other people

  • must be in a role

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leader competencies

decisive/impulsive not rule-following/innovative low on responsibility + flexible

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manager competencies

cautious/deliberate rule-following high on responsibility organized

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how many leadership styles should leaders have?

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mobilizes people toward a vision + defines standards but allows individual discretion and leeway BETS MOST POSITIVE ON FINANCIAL RESULT

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BAD demands immediate compliance (gene, apollo 13)

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forges consensus through participation + asks what do you think about?

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develops people for the future + teaches skills & strategies for reaching individual and shared goals

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builds harming and emotional bonds by developing relationships

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BAD sets very high standards for performance and models the standards + seems to always be raising the bar to overly-challenging levels + appears to prefer employees who are workaholics + can lead employee burnout if used too much

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eight roles of managers: the leader

  • looks beyond the current day to day work reqs and determines where the organization needs to go

  • moves their organization forward by thinking STRATEGICALLY about the directions they need to take

  • form relationships beyond the organization to build and maintain the reputation of the organization

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eight roles of managers: the director

  • defines a problem and takes the initiative to determine a solution

  • uses planning and goal-setting skills to determine what to delegate and ensures that individuals understand what they are being asked to do

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eight roles of managers: the coach

  • engaged in the development of people by teaching skills directly and by creating a caring, empathetic orientation by being helpful, considerate, sensitive, approachable, open, and fair.

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eight roles of managers: the observer

  • pays attention to what is going on in the unit, determining if people are meeting their objectives, and watching to see that the unit is meeting its goals

  • also responsible for understanding what is important for the team to know and ensuring that information overload does not occur

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eight roles of managers: the facilitator

  • fosters a collective effort for the organization, building cohesion and teamwork, and managing interpersonal conflict

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eight roles of managers: the contributor

is expected to be task-oriented and work-focused, ensuring that his/her own personal productivity is attended to along with motivating others

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eight roles of managers: the innovator

  • facilitates adaptation and change, paying attention to the changing environment, identifying trends impacting the organization, and then determining needed changes for the success of the organization

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eight roles of managers: the organizer

takes responsibility for planning work, organizing tasks and structures, and then following up to ensure that what is committed to is completed on time, attending to technological needs, staff coordination, crisis handling, and so forth

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Theory X

managers view employees as lazy and unmotivated to do good work. They see their role as manager as forcing these lazy employees to show up on time, work hard, and avoid errors.

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Theory Y

managers see employees as naturally motivated to do a good job. They see their role as providing self-motivated employees with resources enabling them to produce high-quality results efficiently. Theory X managers are viewed as a “boss,” rather than as a leader. Higher level and more educated workers will no longer tolerate a Theory X style of management. The Theory Y style has been shown to be much more effective in producing engaged, committed, and satisfied employees.

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Thorndike's Law of Effect

Like puppy training A behavior that is followed by positive consequences (a reward) will likely be repeated. Very few managers actually catch their employees doing good and them actually reward them accordingly

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Expectancy Theory

Concerned with employee’s expectations and how they influence their performance Most of us have an expectation that extra effort will be noticed; but if they’re not realized, people are less likely to repeat this positive behavior

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goal-expectancy theory

  • People have conscious goals that energize them and direct their behavior toward a particular end

  • Teaches us that goals can be motivating or demotivating

  • We want our employees to experience successes (preventing from the ‘death spiral’)

  • Goals should be challenging, but attainable

  • Also important to involve your employees in defining and setting goals

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maslow's hierarchy of needs

According to Maslow’s theory, we have five levels of needs beginning with physiological needs such as the need for food and water at the lowest level, and then moving up through safety, belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow contended that people have ego and self-actualization needs that come into focus only after lower-level needs are met. This theory points out that managers should not make the mistake of assuming all their employees are at the same level of needs as they are. Managers should consciously provide opportunities that will enable employees to be satisfied at their current need level and then help them move up the hierarchy to higher-level needs.

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mcclelland's needs theory

  • asserts that people have basic, yet varying, needs for achievements, affiliation, and power

Some people have a high need for achievement and just can’t wait to become “President” of something. Others have a stronger need to be liked by and connected to others (affiliation). McClelland’s research revealed that successful managers and leaders have high achievement and power needs with a much lesser need for affiliation. IT'S HARD TO MAKE HARD DECISIONS IF YOU HAVE A STRONG NEED TO BE LIKED

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hazber's two factor theory

Stated that there are two factors in the workplace that are directly related to employee motivation: Satisfiers and dissatisfiers

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have the potential for making employees ‘happy’. This includes the nature of the work itself, actual job responsibilities, opportunity for personal growth and recognition, and feeling of achievement.

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things that have high potential for making employees dissatisfied, but little potential for making them satisfied or motivated. Ex, company policies, working conditions, pay, coworkers, supervision practices

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hazberg's main contribution

getting managers to think about intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards

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intrinsic reward

a reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself: “Good work is its own reward” is an old, but powerful, expression that summarizes much of this theory.

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extrinsic reward

s a raise or a promotion, is one given to a person by the manager or some other person.

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new science systems theory

  • Margaret Wheatley instead of assuming all organisms seek homeostasis, we actually seek growth and challenge recommends that all managers continuously build the right amount of challenges and growth opportunities to keep top talent motivated

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qualities of effective organization: continuous improvement

continuously improving processes and output through information gathering, readjustment, and innovation

TWO KEY APPROACHES: benchmarking and feedback

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traditional benchmarking

is defined as “the continuous process of measuring a business’s practices against the organization's toughest competitor.” Benchmarking enables organizations to keep up with competitors who are doing well by emulating the successful processes that the competitors are doing.

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creative benchmarking

strategizing, takes into account ALL successful organizations’ processes, NOT just direct competitors.

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giving feedback

Another way for organizations to continuously improve is by providing real time, continuous feedback to leadership and employees. Nobody can truly know how they are performing and how they can improve without open, honest feedback.

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compelling vision

clearly states vision, values, mission/purpose, and goals Vision: an image of an organization's desired future Purpose or mission: what the organization is here to do Values: guiding principles that get the organization where it plans to go Goals: milestones the organization expects to reach along the way

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job security

Job security demonstrates commitment to employees and develops employees who understand the organization. Most believe that this is an “old-fashioned ideal” that cannot be expected “these days.”

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rigorous selection of employees

Employees who are a good fit for the organization—in terms of skills, abilities, and other attributes—will stay with the organization and enhance performance.

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self-managing teams

Teams will permit employees to pool information and create better solutions, as well as enhance worker control over work processes.

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slightly higher salaries and contingent compensation

Providing a slightly higher salary than the competition offers prevents top employees from going to the competition for higher pay. Contingent compensation is also offered. Connects performance outcomes with desirable rewards.

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training and mentoring

Employees need ongoing training to keep skills updated, identify workplace problems, and contribute to innovative solutions.

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reduction of status differences

By reducing both symbolic (e.g., titles) and substantive (e.g., pay) inequities, all employees will feel more valued. This one is controversial—not everyone believes this is the best approach.

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sharing information

Employees can only contribute if they have adequate information about their own jobs and the status of the organization as compared to their vision, values, and goals. More traditional organizations are resistant to share high-level, financial or policy information with employees.

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developing a recognition culture

Maximizing the manager/employee relationship. Managers ask for opinions, praise, include in decisions, engage in two-way communication. Actively working to develop long-term relationships.

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causes of work-life conflict: work factors

type of work (physical demands, amount of challenge), work schedules (regular day shifts vs. irregular shifts), level of work autonomy, and work group relationships (level of conflict or support)

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causes of work-life conflict: life factors

family characteristics such as the nature of the household (single- vs. two-parent families), sources of household income (single provider vs. dual income), and status of children (number and age).

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causes of work-life conflict: personal factors

how central the work or family role is to an individual’s identity, and personality characteristics such as emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

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outcomes of work-life imbalances

Work-life conflicts are associated with lower levels of job satisfaction, workplace alienation, lower morale, job stress, and burnout. Work-life conflict is also associated with low levels of life satisfaction resulting in health risks, sleep disorders, mental health issues, reduced effectiveness in parenting roles, reduced marital satisfaction, and family well-being.

  • These outcomes are generally worse for women.

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types of work-life conflicts: time-based conflicts

occur when time pressures of one role make it physically impossible to comply with the time pressures of another role, and they occur when pressures in one role leads to a preoccupation with that role while attempting to fulfill another role halfheartedly.

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types of work-based conflicts: strain-based conflicts

This occurs when the challenges of completing one role makes it difficult or challenging to fulfill the other roles.

Negativity felt for one role can spill over into other roles. The negative emotions create fatigue, tension, and worry that are displaced into personal life such that the individual does poorly as a friend, parent, or spouse.

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types of work-life conflicts: behavior-based conflicts

occurs when the behaviors in one role are not appropriate (or less than optimal) in the other role, but the individual fails to adapt behaviors appropriate to the other situation.

Behaviors that are appropriate at work are inappropriate at home. Conversely, behaviors that are appropriate in the home (nurturing and caring behaviors) may not be appropriate in a managerial role.

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the influence of societal norms

Societal norms regarding work influence individuals to put more focus on work than on their personal lives. These norms, in combination with the changing demographics of the workplace, make work-life issues more prominent and challenging to manage.

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motherhood norm

communicates that women are expected to be interested in and willing to do unpaid caregiving, such as raising children and caring for the elderly

  • expected to do this and work full-time jobs

  • contributes to work-life conflict but also family conflict if partners have different expectations

  • can create issues within the workplace if women are expected to nurture by planning social events or making coffee.

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ideal worker norm

communicates that dedicated professionals should be willing to prioritize work over family and friends

  • leads to pressure to be on call 24/7 exacerbated by technology

  • particularly influential on the young, single professionals who work extra to prove they are committed

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individualism norm

suggests that Americans are "rugged individuals" who should be able to manage challenges on our own

  • makes US employees hesitant to expect organizations to provide family-friendly kinds of support

  • we tend to expect people take care of their non-work like individually so it doesn't interfere with being an ideal worker.

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consumerism norm

we are constantly encourages to purchase material goods, do lavish activities (ex. big ass weddings)

  • pressures people to earn more money, leading to working longer hours, makes dual-income couples seem like a necessity

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technology norm

the fact that we can be reached 24/7 through communication technology has set up the expectation that workers should be available whenever needed- including during employee vacations

  • can create a kind of "white collar sweatshop", working additional hours without additional compensation

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family friendly workplace policies

increased awareness of work-life conflict has led the management of many organizations to adopt family-friendly policies to assist work-life issues helps with individualism norm

  • research says these policies and direct supervisors who support them have positive outcomes for work and family life.

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problems with family-friendly policies

1 career repercussions 2 difficulty negotiating leave policies 3 peer pressure against using the policies

  • most employees don't use policies in fear their career will suffer

  • career-oriented mothers, singles, and fathers, think they will get smaller raises and be overlooked for promotions if they take family leave and show "weak commitment"

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author's definition of leadership

a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leadership involves influence, occurs within a group context and involves goal attainment.

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textbook leadership

motivational in nature, 1 produces change and movement 2 establishing direction 3 aligning people 4 motivating and inspiring

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textbook management

focuses on maintaining performance 1 produces order and consistency 2 planning and budgeting 3 organizing and staffing 4 controlling and problem staffing

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the trait approach

focuses exclusively on leader and the traits leaders exhibit

  • organizations use personality assessments to find the “right” people with the assumption the traits will increase organization effectiveness

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strengths of the trait approach

1 people want to view their leader as gifted/special 2 century of research 3 provides a deeper level of understanding of how leader/personality is related to the leadership process and providing benchmarks for what to look for in a leader.

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weaknesses of the trait approach

1 fails to establish situational effects, leaders in one situation may not be leaders in another situation 2 leadership trait list is highly subjective 3 it is assumed that effective leadership traits are inherent to an individual not acquired

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the skills approach

focus is primarily descriptive in that it describes leadership from skills perspective and provides a structure for understanding the nature of effective leadership

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strengths of the skills approach

1 it is the first approach to conceptualize and create a structure of the process of leadership around skills and by doing so, makes leadership available to everyone 2 provides expansive view of leadership that incorporates a wide variety of components (problem solving, social judgment skills) and provides a structure consistent with leadership education programs

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weaknesses of the skills approach

1 the breadth of skills approach appears to extend beyond the boundaries of leadership, making it more general 2 weak in predictive value in that it does not explain how skills lead to effective leadership performance

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the style approach

a framework for assessing leadership in a broad way, as behavior with a task and relationship dimension

  • offers means of assessing the behaviors of leaders in a general way --marked a major shift in leadership research from exclusively trait focused behaviors and actions of leaders Composed of two types of behaviors: task and relationship.

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strengths of the style approach

1 broad range of studies on leadership style that validates and gives credibility 2 heuristic, leaders can learn a lot about themselves and how them come across by trying to see their behaviors in light the task and relationship dimensions

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weaknesses of the style approach

1 research has no adequately demonstrated how leaders’ styles are associated with performance outcomes 2 no universal style of leadership that can be effective in every situation 3 implies that the most effective leadership style is high task and high relationship combination but research to support this is limited

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the situational approach

centered on the idea that subordinates vacillate along the developmental continuum of competence and commitment, therefore leader effectiveness depends upon assessing subordinate’s developmental position and adapting his/her leadership style to match the subordinate developmental level - requires a strong degree of flexibility

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strengths of the situational approach

1 is perceives as providing a credible model for training employees to become effective leaders 2 straightforward approach that is easily understood and applied 3 also clearly outlines what you should and should not do in various settings

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weaknesses of the situational approach

1 lack of empirical foundation raises theoretical considerations regarding the validity of the approach 2 studies fail to support basic prescriptions of situational leadership model 3 does not account for how particular demographics influence leader-subordinate prescriptions of the model and fails to adequately address the issue of one-to one versus group leadership

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the path-goal theory

maintains that it is the leader’s job to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the way

  • leaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership to fit them

provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with subordinate characteristics and the work situation to affect employee motivation + complex but pragmatic

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strengths of the path-goal theory

1 a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance 2 attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership 3 provides a practical model that underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates 3

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weaknesses of the path-goal theory

can be confusing bc it is so complex, and difficult to implement

  • empirical studies have demonstrated only partial support for the theory because it fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation

  • treats leadership as a one-way event in which the leader affects the subordinate

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the lmx theory

works in two ways, describes leadership and prescribes leadership central concept is the dyadic relationships bw leaders and subordinates suggests it is important to recognize ingroups and outgroups focus on relationships with all to make entire work group an ingroup

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strengths of the lmx theory

1 validates our experience of how people within an organization relate to each other and the leader 2 only approach that makes dyadic relationship the centerpiece 3 directs importance towards communication

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weaknesses of the lmx theory

1 inadvertently supports the development of privileged groups in the workplace and appears unfair and discriminatory 2 basic theoretical ideas are not fully developed and not enough is known about creating high quality leader member exchanges nor the means of building trust, respect, and obligation 3 bc of various scales and levels of analysis, the precise measurement of leader-member exchanges is questionable

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the transformational approach

empower and nurture followers + stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers, commonly create a vision, require leaders to become social architects, build trust, and foster collaboration

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strengths of the transformational approach

1 widely researched and research supports 2 people are attracted to transformational leadership bc it makes sense to them and treats leadership as a process between followers and leaders 3 provides broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models and emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and morals

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weaknesses of the transformational approach

1 lacks conceptual clarity in that the dimensions are not clearly delimited and the parameters of transformational leadership overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership, some factors are not solely unique to this model 2 treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition rather than a behavior that can be taught 3 some say elitist and antidemocratic 4 research is based primarily on qualitative data and the measurement of transformational leadership has been questioned 4

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the servant approach

concerned with putting followers first and the outcomes that are likely to emerge works best when leaders are altruistic and motivated to help others

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strengths of the servant approach

1 makes altruism the central component of leadership process 2 provides counterintuitive approach to the use of influence in that leaders should share control

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weaknesses of the servant approach

1 may not be effective when subordinates are not open to being guided, supported, and empowered 2 researchers are unable to reach consensus on a common definition or theoretical framework for servant leadership 3 prescriptive overtone suggesting leaders “put others first” conflicts with other principles of leadership and sounds moralistic

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theory y

involved the quality circle approach to managing, teaching American businesses to adapt Japanese management styles - focused on increasing employee loyalty by providing the job for life with strong focus on the wellbeing of the employee

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Peter Drucker

argued that management was the effective use of motivation and communication

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four types of workplace communication: business

study of written and oral skills

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four types of workplace communication: corporate

creating a desired world reputation and image of the organization

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four types of workplace communication: organizational

study of complex system oriented environment people send and receive information within ex. improving coordinated systems of control

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four types of workplace communication: MC

merges all of the other types

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four managerial functions

1 P lanning 2 O rganizing 3 L eading 4 C ontrolling

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four managerial resources

1 F inancial 2 I nformational 3 M aterial 4 Human Resources

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three tiers: top management

facilitators who use mostly conceptual skills CEOs, CFOs

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three tiers: middle management

translators who use mostly human skills directors, general managers

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three tiers: frontline management

supervisors who use mostly technical skills sales, supervisors, marketers

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organizational climate

environmental quality that the workers experience, can be supportive, defensive, positive, or negative

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