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Thiamin sources

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1

Thiamin sources

whole grain and enriched grain

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2

Thiamin functions

coenzyme in energy metabolism

nerve system transmission

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3

Thiamin deficiency symptoms

beri beri

edema

muscle wasting

fatigue

confusion

apathy

high risk for alcoholism

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4

riboflavin sources

milk

dairy

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5

riboflavin fucntion

coenzyme

helps make niacin from tryptophan

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6

riboflavin deficiency symtpoms

glossitis and cheilosis

alcoholism

dermatitis

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7

niacin sources

protein rich foods- animal protein

whole grains and enriched

tryptophan

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8

niacin functions

coenzyme

nerve system function

medicinally- lower cholesterol

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9

niacin deficiency

pellagra- 4Ds (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death,

high risk for alcoholism

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10

niacin toxicity

when megadosed s a drug for lowering cholesterol

niacin flush

can cause liver dmg

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11

vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) fucntions

helps make niacin from tryptophan

drug/nutrient interaction

therapeutic use

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12

vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) sources

legumes

M/F/P

nuts and seeds

whole grains and enriched

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13

biotin sources

produced by bacteria in colon but essential

widespread in foods

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14

when does a biotin supplement help w hair and nail growth

when biotin levels are low in blood

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15

folate sources→ folic acid (synthetic name)

green leafy veggies

legumes

avocado

nuts and seeds

oranges

fortified grains

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16

which folate is better absorbed?

synthetic

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17

folate fucntions

coenzyme in DNA synthesis

vital for new cell synthesis

integral for GI function

reduced risk of neural tube defects

activates b12

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18

folate deficiency symptoms

macrocytic anemia

mental status change

depression

high risk for alcoholism

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19

B12 sources

found in all animal products

no plant sources unless fortified

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20

which is better absorbed synthetic/fortified or natural b12

synthetic

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21

B12 functions

DNA synthesis

RBC maturation

myelin sheath integrity

activates folate

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22

B12 deficiency

macrocytic anemia

mental status change

depression

high risk for alcoholism

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23

what happens as you age w absorption of b12?

atrophic gastritis

decreased (HCL) and intrinsic factor

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24

no toxicity for b12 why?

liver can store b12

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25

Vitamin C- water soluble, aka ascorbic acid sources

fruits

veggies

citrus

cantaloupe

kiwi

berries

red/green peppers

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26

Vitamin C functions

collagen synthesis

antioxidant

promotes non heme iron absorption

immune system function

thyroxine synthesis

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27

vitamin c deficiency

scurvy

pin point hemorrhaging

bone softenin

bleeding gums

anemia

prone to infection

skin changes

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28

vitamin A sources

preformed (animal- whole milk, fish, liver, fortified in low fat)

provitamin (plant-beta carotene-- yellow and orange color produced,

fortified cereals

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29

vit. a functions

vision

skin maintenance

reproduction

growth of bone and teeth

immune funtion

antioxidant in form of beta carotene (from food is better vs. supplement)

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30

vit. a deficiency

storage in liver can be up to a year

deficiency rare in US but world wide problem

can lead to blindness

for rhodopsin production

xerophthalmia-- dryness of eyes that can lead to night blindness

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31

vit. a toxicity

non toxic is beta carotene

toxic is preformed animal sources

can cause liver dmg and hair loss

CNS dmg and bone + skin changes

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32

vit. D source

sunlight

liver

fatty fish, eggs, cod liver oil, fortified yogurt and fortified milk, fortified foods

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33

vit. D Functions

increases absorption of calcium in GI tract and reabsorption from kidneys

maintains serum calcium levels

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34

vit. D toxicity

not from sun, from oversupplementation

increases rusk for kidney stones, headache

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35

vit k sources

leafy green veggies

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36

vit. e sources

oil, wheat germ, nuts seeds, veggie oils

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37

vit e function

antioxidant

protects vit A and PUFA in body

protects LDL from oxidation

immune support

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38

vit e deficiency

preterm babies high risk for RBC hemolysis

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39

vit k function

prothrombin and osteocalcin (blood clotting, bone formation)

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40

sodium functions

preservative for frozen foods

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41

sodium sources

frozen meals

canned foods

prepackaged snacks

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42

sodium needs and AI daily recommendation and UL

180 mg needed

AI-- 1,500mg

UL-- 2,300mg

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43

potassium sources

potatoes, spinach, avocado, medium banana, baked potato, white beans, yogurt, fatty fish, orange

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44

potassium AI

4700 mg/day

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45

relationship w potassium and sodium

More processed the food the more sodium (bp increase)and less potassium

Less processed more potassium and less sodium

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46

calcium sources

yogurt, milk, cheese, cereals, spinach, cauliflower

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47

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48

why is calcium and iron in spinach not well absorbed?

oxalate

(bad for absorption) raw in leafy greens, cooked greens is better and higher amt of minerals (iron calcium) cause no oxalate

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49

how can calcium and iron in spinach be better absorbed?

cooked greens cause no oxalate

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50

how is the serum calcium regulated w the help of vit. D and PTH?

release of PTH causes calcium to be pulled out from bone

both PTH and vitamin D increase absorption of Ca from SI

increase reabsorption/decrease excretion from kidneys

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51

what 3 minerals play a role in bone structure?

Ca, Mg, Phosphorus

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52

what does some evidence suggest abt the correlation b/w phosphoric acid in soda and calcium absorption

phosphoric acid found in soda, interferes w calcium

→ excessive soda consumption can hurt bone density

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53

calcium deficiency

rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults-- decayed teeth malformed

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54

calcium servings for RDA

3-4 servings of fortified dairy

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55

what is the function of magnesium w respect to muscles?

helps relax muscles

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56

what two interventions can magnesium sulfate be used for?

helps constipation and cuts bruises and relax muscles

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57

what are the sources of heme and non heme iron?

(non heme are plant sources (legumes ex.) (Egg not good for heme) other animal products sources for heme

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58

which source of iron is better absorbed?

Heme better absorbed

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59

What vitamin helps with absorption of non-heme iron?

vit. c

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60

What is the main function of iron?

Helps make hemo and myoglobin

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61

What is the term for iron-deficiency anemia and what are its characteristics and symptoms?

microcytic hypochromic anemia

→ involves palor, fatigue, weakness, hyperactivity

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62

How is iron easily stored in the body? Is it easily excreted?

Stored in liver and other organs not readily excreted

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63

what is the role of iodine w respect to thyroid gland?

Helps make thyroid hormones (t3 t4)

help make thyroid gland to function properly

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64

what can a deficiency iodine increase the risk for?

Can cause goiter → enlarged thyroid gland

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65

what are good sources of iodine?

Iodized salt

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66

what are the imp. functions of zinc in terms of sexual maturation?

Helps produce sex gonads

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67

what is the relationship of zinc w respect to colds, pressure wounds, and smell and perception?

Optimize smell and taste, not prevent cold but decrease cold length can also help heal pressure wounds

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68

what can a deficiency of zinc increase the risk for?

Can increase risk for dwarfism

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69

what condition is caused by excessive fluoride intake and what pop. is at high risk?

fluorosis → cosmetic issue of teeth not detrimental

children under 8 are most at risk

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70

what is the main function of chromium

Coenzyme in optivating insulin

increases insulin sensitivity

decreasing insulin resistance

maintains blood sugars

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71

when are chromium supplements helpful for type 2 dm?

Only when found low serum lvl in bloo

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72

define energy balance and how does it related to body weight in terms of negative, neutral and positive

the relationship b/w the amt of energy input and the amt of energy output

  • negative→ calorie output is exceeds calorie intake=weight loss

  • neutral→ calorie intake is = to calorie output, no weight change

  • positive→ calorie intake exceeds calorie output= weight gain

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73

what are the four sources of energy intake

carbs (4cal/g), protein (4cal/g) , fats (9cal/g), alcohol (7cal/g)

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74

what are the three sources of energy expended

  • BMR (basal metabolic rate)

  • thermic effect of food TEF

  • PA physical activity

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75

what is the relationship of aging w respect to BMR, LBM, fat tissue, weight gain after 30

bmr decrease

lean body mass decrease

fat tissue increase

1 lb per yr after 30

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76

define the dif. levels of PA

sedentary, light, moderate, high activity

sedentary→ typical desk worker, sleeping, sitting all day

light→ less than 2 hrs

moderate→gym 3x/week, not rlly sitting

high activity→ sports, manual labor, runner

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77

how do each factor affect BMR

decreases

growth increases

physiological stress ?

abnormal thyroid regulation hypo→slow, hyper→fast

fever increase

height increase

extrem temps increases

starving, fasting, malnutrition decreases

weight loss from calorie deficit decreases

smoking nic increases

caffeine increases

medication depends on med

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78

how does weight statistically correlate to health

idk

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79

define and calculate BMI and categories of BMI

bmi is body mass index

categories:

<p>bmi is body mass index</p><p>categories:</p>
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80

what are the pitfalls of BMI

does not take into account gender, LBM-muscle, bone and water and fat composition

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81

what does research recommend w respect to BMI for the asain pop.

lower cutoff point

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82

body distribution in terms of male and female numerical references

females >35 in.

males >40 in.

= higher chances of mortality and comorbidities

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83

what is the difference b/w visceral and subcutaneous fat

Visceral more toxic and detrimental fat is at wasit visceral @ waist and butt

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84

what is the difference b/w pear and apple shaped in terms of health risks

pear shaped less detrimental

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85

what are the 6 potential causes of obesity

calories

set point theory: whatever body weight is currently at is where the bod wants to stay

hormones

behavior

genetics

obesogenic envorni

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86

what are the 6 factors of an obesogenic environment

accessibility to food

increased snack consumption

food budget allotment

portion sizes

labor saving devices

increased sedentary behaviors

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87

what are the potential complications of obesity

comorbidites like cancers, osteoarthiritis, hypertension

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88

what are the 5 stages of change under the transtheoretical model

  1. pre contemplation

  2. contemplation

  3. planning

  4. action

  5. maintanence

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89

what stages should the client not be in to receive effective counseling

pre contemplatin and conteplation

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90

what is the dif. b/w ideal and reality of treatment

ideal-m healthy bmi (18.5-24.9)

reality- sustain a weight loss that is 3-5%of initial body weight

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91

A sustained weight loss of 3-5% will decrease the risk of what parameters?

death idk

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92

16. How is prevention of additional weight gain an active intervention?

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93

17. Know the 3 parts of the lifestyle approach for weight management.

change diet, PA, behaviour change

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94

18. What does the NIH recommend for weight loss with respect to a low calorie diet (LCD)?

men- 1500-1800 cal/day

women- 1200-1500 cal/day

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95

19. What is a VLCD?

800 cal/day

supervised liquid diet

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96

20. In regards to the types of macronutrient diets, what does the research suggest about the best outcome for weight loss?

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97

21. What does the research suggest about the effectiveness of portion control, eating frequency, breakfast, eliminating SSB and meal replacements in terms of weight loss?

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98

22. Know the benefits of exercise.

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99

23. Know the optimal recommendation for maintaining weight loss.

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100

. Know and understand the following behavior modification strategies: self-monitoring, goal setting, stimulus control and problem solving

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