Media Psychology Exam 1

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media literacy

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117 Terms

1

media literacy

understanding how to comprehend media

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2

experience

authority

science

what are the 3 ways of knowing?

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3

prediction

explanation

understanding

control

what are the four goals of science?

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4

theory

set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that explains and predicts events or situations among variables

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5

confirmation bias

the tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs even if their current information indicates that the original decision was incorrect, based upon the perceived information that made the decision.

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6

qualitative

quantitative

what are the different types of inquiry?

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7

quantitative

What type of inquiry:

count things

standard questioning

examples: experiments, surveys, meta-analysis

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8

qualitative

What type of inquiry:

interpret things

flexible questioning

typical examples:

focus groups

field observation

in-depth interviews

case studies

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9

population

everyone we are interested in knowing something about

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10

sample

subset in our group included in research study

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11

*

*The relationship between a population and sample:

we use a sample to judge a population

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12

convenience

representative

random/probability

the 3 common types of samples

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13

convenience sample

readily available group to the researcher

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14

representative sample

a group that resembles the entire population of interest

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15

random/probability sample

systematically chosen group where in every unit from the population has an equal chance of being selected

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16

two variables are related

the cause comes first (time order)

rule out alternate causes

what are the 3 necessary conditions for determining cause?

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17

validity

does the study investigate what it claims to

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18

reliability

would I get the same results if I did it again?

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19

quantitative content analysis

a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative descriotion of the manifest content of communication

ex: how much violence/sex is in this content?

dating behaviors per hour of reality dating tv

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manifest content

the material that actually appears

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21

latent content

the material that is implied

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22

objective

someone else should be able to achieve the same results

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23

systematic

the content is selected and evaluated according to explicit and consistently applied rules

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24

quantitative

the analysis is numerical so that the results can be analyzed statistically

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25

key elements of experiments

test for cause and effect

use manipulation

random assignment

multiple groups

equal treatment

IV

DV

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26

experiments

what research designs allow for causal claims

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27

cross sectional

longitudinal

what are the two major types of surveys?

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28

meta-analysis

research that compares or combines the results of multiple studies on the same topic, it is important because it can determine effect size

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29

gratification perspective

a broad perspective focused on the viewer as an active participant in choosing to use media that meets personal needs

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30

learning

habit

arousal

relaxation

escape

passing time

social interaction

what are the 7 common motivations for medis use?

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31

parasocial interaction

illusionary give and take between a media figure and audience

happens during media use

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parasocial relationships

lingering sense of intimacy and connectedness with media figure, develops over time and endures beyond that media experience

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parasocial breakup

happens when the audience grieves the loss of the parasocial relationship

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34

attachment theory

Bowlby (1969)

Attachment behavior system - a set of behaviors and reactions that monitor and regulate the distance between children and their caregivers

  • Crying

Attachment Figure → Primary Caregiver (Mother)

Secure base – a safe environment for exploration

Internal working models of attachment – beliefs and expectations about relationships (“from the cradle to the grave”)

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35

anxiety about abandonment

avoidance of intimacy

what are the 2 underlying attachment dimensions?

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36

secure

preoccupied

fearful

dismissing

the 2 underlying attachment dimensions combine to create these 4 distint types?

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37

secure

comfortable with intimacy and interdependence optimistic and sociable

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38

preoccupied

uneasy and vigilant toward any threat to the relationship: needy and jealous

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fearful

fearful of rejection and mistrustful of others: suspicious and shy

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dismissing

self-reliant and uninterested in intimacy: indifferent and independent

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41

homophily

the tendency for people to choose connections with people who are similar to themselves in socially prominent ways

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42

indentification

actively imagining becoming the character in a book or program and experiencing the events happening to that character from the inside out

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43

persona/celebrity worship

an obsessive-addictive disorder in which an individual becomes excessivley focused on the details of a celebrity, typically a TV, movie, or popstar

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44

substitution hypothesis

the idea that people use parasocial relationships to compensate for deficits in their real world relationships

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45

panksepp-jakobson hypothesis

the competing hypotheis to the substitution, the idea that parasocial relationships are complimentary to people’s real world relationships, they follow patterns that real relationships do

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46

panksepp-jakobson hypothesis

which hypothesis is supported in the meta-analysis by Tukachinsky & Walter & Saucier

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47

altruism

selfless concern for others

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48

slacktivism

active participation in social issues online with a lack of participation otherwise outside of social media

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49

positive media psychology

fostering one’s own wellbeing, creating greater connectedness with others, cultivating compassion for those oppressed or stigmatized and motivating altruism and other parasocial actions

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50

care

fairness

loyalty

authroity

purity

what are the 5 moral foundations

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51

care

the belief one should relieve the suffering of others; opposite of harm

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52

fairness

the belief that people should be treated equitably in a way that ensures justice for all people

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53

loyalty

the need to promote the common good; particularly to our own in-groups

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54

authority

the recognition of those who are in legitimate possession of power, so long as that power is not abused, comes along with respect to traditions

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55

purity

the desire to avoid contamination, those who created by carnal(sexual) and animalistic desires

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56

*

*what the MIME predicts

model of intuitive morality and exemplars (mime), predicts that one's own media choices influence morality and morality affects media judgements

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57

*

*The macro level prediction of social cognitive theory:

people observe others actions and consequences of those actions so they can reenact

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58

personal

behavioral

environmental

3 predictors/determinants of actions in the social cognitive theory:

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59

attention

retention

motor reproduction

motivation

the 4 processes involved in social cognitive theory

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60

attention

in order to reenact the behavior you’re watching, you have to pay attention

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retention

you have to retain the information

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motor reproduction

reproducing the behavior

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motivation

have to be motivated enough to reproduce the behavior

was the person punished or rewarded for their behavior?

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64

*

*How media is related to social cognitive theory: when media models prosocial behaviors, consumers can learn through these models

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65

socioemotional learning

lifelong process of developing competence in understanding how thoughts, feelings, and actions affect both the self and others

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66

self-management

self-awareness

social awareness

responsible decision making

relationship skills

the 5 parts of socioemotional learning

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67

self management

the ability to control oneself and manage stress

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68

self-awareness

the ability to identify your own emotional states

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69

social awareness

taking the point of view of others and having empathy about what others experience

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responsible decision making

making decisions that are ethical, safe, and normative

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71

relationship skills

communication, healthy interaction, engagement with others, and being part of a team.

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72

*

*the factors that amplify positive effect:

being a real person

not an animated character

focusing on the positive aspect not the negative

simple story

message is repeated

adult interact with children

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73

eudaimonia

it's the feeling of happiness or trying to find happiness/meaning

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74

elevation

admiration

awe

what are the 3 emotions related to transcendent media experiences

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75

elevation

an uplifting positive emotion that is elicited in a few circumstances often described as warmth (lump in the throat)

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76

admiration

occurs when we witness great feats or skill of talent, also associated with warmth and the chills

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77

awe

when we are witnessing people or objects that are grand, powerful, large, or beyond one’s understanding

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78

stereotyping

reducing people to find few simple characteristics that are representative as “fixed by nature”

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79

intergroup

interrole

interreality

what are the 3 comparisons made in content research?

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80

intergroup

we compare an intergroup between groups

EX: looking at crime in media and looking at black perpetrators and white perpetrators

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81

interrole

comparing between the different roles someone might play

EX: compare the number of black police officers to black perpetrators

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82

interreality

comparison between the media world and the real world

EX: black perpetrators in media vs black perpetrators in real life

EX: looking at population statistics vs media statistics

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83

*

*Overrepresented

  • Men

  • White Americans

  • Black Americans

  • Young Adults

Underrepresented

  • Women

  • Latino Americans

  • Asain Americans

  • Native Americans

  • Adults age 60+

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84

priming

the human brain is connected by pathways with varying strength, media is a prime and exposure to it activates related nodes in a consumer's mind, influences subsequent judgements and behaviors

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85

social identity theory

predicts:

we distinguish ourselves from others based on group memberships, our group is the in group and the out group is everyone else, we derive personal value from our group membership

media influences:

how we think about in and out group members

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86

role schema

a general set of expectations for people within a specific social category… sex roles, racial and ethnic roles…

Media help us build schema

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87

parasocial contact hypothesis

exposure to media figures who are different from oneself may reduce stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination

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88

product placement

placing products in media to get exposure to the brand or product, it works because people are not realizing that it is an ad (defenses are down)

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89

reciprocity

scarcity

authority

liking

consistency

consensus or soical proof

Cialdini’s 6 principles of influece include:

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90

reciprocity

the social sense of obligation that is ingrained in culture

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91

scarcity

refers to human desire to want what is in small supply

  • Concensus or social proof - we want to make sure others have made the same choice before we do

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92

Authority

natural human penchant for following experts

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93

liking

people say yes to those they like

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94

Consistency

human desire to avoid dissonance

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95

Concensus or social proof

we want to make sure others have made the same choice before we do

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96

persuasion

to change someone’s attitude or behavior as a result of exposure to a message or series of messages

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97

intentional persuasion

some messages are designed to change attitudes and behaviors EX: drug advertisements that induce fear

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98

unintentional persuasion

some messages incidentally change attitudes and behaviors EX: tv shows

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99

third person effect

the tendency for people to perceive others as being considerably more influential by mass media messages as compared to themselves

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100

*

The 3rd person is impacted by message desirability:

whether the message has a positive or negative effect,

less inclined to acknowledge negative messages as being influential

social distance:

whether you think you’re similar to the person you’re judging as the third person

we’re more likely to think that those who are similar to us, we think they are impacted the same way as us

the less similar someone is, the more likely we are to see them as the third person

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