Honors LA 8

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Mrs. Woronko LL

130 Terms

1

setting

geographical location, time period, socioeconomic characteristics

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2

round character

convincing and true-to-life character

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3

flat character

stereotyped or shallow character who is sometimes symbolic

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4

dynamic character

character that undergoes some sort of change or development

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5

static character

character that does not change over the course of the story

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6

protagonist

the main character in a literary work

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7

antagonist

the character that opposes the main character in a literary work

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8

direct characterization

the author develops the personality of characters using direct statements about them

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9

indirect characterization

the author reveals characters' personalities through their thoughts, words, actions, appearance

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10

plot

the structure of the story and the arrangement of the events that take place

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11

exposition

the beginning of the story

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12

rising action

the series of conflicts or crisis that arise in a story

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13

climax

the turning point or the most intense moment of a story

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14

falling action

all of the action of a story that comes after the climax

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15

resolution

also known as the denoument, this is the conclusion of a story where everything is tied together and the conflict is or is not resolved

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16

conflict

dramatic struggle between two forces in a story; without this, there is no plot

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17

interpersonal conflict

human versus human, human versus nature, human versus society

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18

internal conflict

human versus self

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19

point of view

the perspective from which the story is told

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20

omniscient point of view

"all knowing"'; author tells what all characters are thinking and feeling; author is telling the story directly

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21

limited omniscient point of view

third person; author only tells what one character is thinking or feeling

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22

first person

told from the viewpoint of one of the characters (the narrator) using the first person pronoun "I"

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23

theme

the central idea or central message of the story

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24

symbolism

something that represents an idea, quality or concept larger than itself (like a rose symbolizing love)

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25

inference

the act of coming to one's own conclusions about a story based on what IS NOT directly stated by the author but is implied indirectly

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26

foreshadow

when the author gives hints of what is to come in the plot of the story

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27

atmosphere

the mood that is created by the setting of the story

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28

THE ORDINARY WORLD

Here the person is introduced to the audience. He doesn't know his personal potential or calling.

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29

THE CALL TO ADVENTURE

The point in a person's life when he is first given notice that everything is going to change, whether he knows it or not.

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30

REFUSAL OF THE CALL

Often when the call is given, the future hero does not heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his current circumstances.

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31

MEETING WITH THE MENTOR

Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his guide and magical helper appears, or becomes known.

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32

THE FIRST THRESHOLD

This is the point where the person actually crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known.

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33

TESTS, ALLIES AND ENEMIES

The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the person must undergo to begin the transformation. Often the person fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in 3s.

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34

APPROACH [THE INMOST CAVE]

The Hero prepares for a big change. The hero and new-found allies prepare and come to the Ordeal in the special world.

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35

THE ORDEAL

This is sometimes described as the person's lowest point or darkest moment. The separation has been made between the old world and old self and the potential for a new world/self. By entering this stage, the person shows her/his willingness to make a change, to die and become a new person.

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36

THE REWARD

Here the hero confronts and defeats old enemies with the new power and knowledge gained. He or she is able to overthrow or defeat the opponent.

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37

THE ROAD BACK

The Hero is rededicated to change. About three-fourths of the way through the story, the hero is driven to complete the adventure, leaving the special world to be sure the treasure is brought home. Often a chase scene on the hero's journey home signals the urgency and danger of the mission.

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38

ATONEMENT/RESURRECTION

The hero experiences a positive emotional or personality change. Hero makes up for mistakes and a "dead" part of him is brought back to life and changed for the better.

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39

RETURN WITH THE ELIXIR

There is freedom to live and freedom from the fear of death. This is sometimes referred to as "living in the moment."

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40

The Mentor

Is a kind, wise, older father-figure, Serves as teacher or counselor to the hero, Uses personal knowledge of people and the world to tell stories that help the hero understand who he is and what he might become, Often seen to be in some way foreign, like from a different culture, nation or even a different time

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41

The Trickster

Often a funny character who makes life more difficult for the hero

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42

The Anti-Hero

Has no heroic qualities, Blurs the line between hero and villain, May be a reluctant hero

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43

The Villain

Cruel or evil character who opposes the hero, Is guilty or capable of crime, Has human motivations, A destructive force; may break the laws of nature, may be cunning or insane

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44

Loyal Companions

Noble sidekicks to the hero, their duty is to protect the hero, reflect the nobility of the hero, Are willing to face any number of perils in order to be together

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45

Damsel in Distress

Vulnerable woman who must be rescued by the hero An empowered damsel is a strong, assertive woman who plays an active part in vanquishing the villain

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46

The Hero

Is born into unusual circumstances, like danger or royalty, Leaves family or land and comes of age among others, Receives a call to adventure, Receives supernatural help and sometimes a special weapon, Must prove himself on the journey.

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47

Evil Minions

Also called Creatures of Nightmare, Inhuman, their presence overpowers and weakens the hero, must be defeated through skill and cunning

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48

Justice

A common theme in mythology: punishment for doing wrong and rewards for doing what's right

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49

Hubris

A common theme in mythology, pride almost always ends in tragedy

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50

Fate and Prophecy

A common theme in mythology: to a certain extent, there are predetermined elements that are beyond human control

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51

Heroes

A common theme in mythology: abnormally talented humans who accomplish great feats, particularly in defeating monsters.

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52

Creation

A common theme in mythology: they explain how the world was created.

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53

Natural Phenomenon

A common theme in mythology: these gave ancient societies a way to explain the world around them and nature or weather events before science became formalized

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54

Beauty

A common theme in mythology: can be both something of infinite value as well as extremely dangerous

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55

malapropism

comic substitution of one word for another that is similar in sound but different in meaning

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56

propaganda

the systematic distribution of information intended to convince people to agree with a certain idea.

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57

euphemism

a milder way of saying something unpleasant, such as saying someone "passed on" instead of saying they died

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58

flashback

when the author refers back to something that happened at an earlier part in the story or even before the story began

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59

idiom

an expression that cannot be taken literally

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60

personification

giving human qualities to something nonhuman, such as rain pounding on a window

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61

fable

a story that conveys a moral

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62

dramatic irony

when we know something the characters don't know

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63

Playwright

The author of a play.

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64

Script

The written form of a play.

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65

Acts

The units of the action in a drama.

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66

Scenes

Divided parts of the acts.

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67

Characterization

The playwright's technique of creating believable characters through their actions and words.

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68

Dialogue

The words characters say. The words each character speaks appear next to the character's name. Much of what you learn about the characters, setting, and events is revealed through conversations among the characters.

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69

Monologue

A long, uninterrupted speech that is spoken by a single character. This often reveals a character's private thoughts and feelings.

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70

Stage Directions

Bracketed instructions that convey information about sound effects, actions, and sets. This information can also describe a character's gestures or emotions.

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71

Set

The term used for the scenery on stage that suggests the time and place of the action.

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72

Props

Small portable items that the actors use to make their actions look realistic, such as plates on the set of a kitchen.

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73

Comedy

A form of drama that has a happy ending. This form often features ordinary characters in funny situations.

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74

Tragedy

Often contrasted with comedy. The distinguishing feature of this form of drama is that the events lead to the downfall or death of the main character. This character can be an average person but often is a person of great significance, such as a king or a heroic figure.

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75

Drama

Often used to describe plays that address serious subjects.

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76

Screenplays

The scripts for films. They include camera angles and can allow for more scene changes than a stage play.

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77

Teleplays

Scripts written for television and often contain elements similar to those in a screenplay.

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78

Radio plays

Written to be performed as radio broadcasts. They include sound effects and require no set.

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79

lines

These help poets add natural pauses by breaking up a poem into many individual parts and a capital letter usually introduces the beginning of one.

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80

end rhyme

Type of rhyme that occurs when the ends of lines share the same sound

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81

internal rhyme

Type of rhyme that occurs within a single line, as in “Once upon a midnight dreary while I ponder weak and weary.”

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82

rhyming couplets

A pair of rhyming lines that usually have the same meter and length

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83

figurative language

Writing that is innovative, imaginative, and not meant to be taken literally.

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84

metaphor

A type of figurative language where two things are being compared by describing one thing as if it were something else.

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85

simile

A type of figurative language where two things are being compared using like or as.

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86

alliteration

The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.

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87

consonance

The repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds, like end and hand.

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88

assonance

The repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds, like fade and hay.

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89

onomatopoeia

The use of words that imitate sounds, like buzz, stomp or clap.

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90

stanzas

The arrangement of groups of lines to create an appearance on the page or to organize thoughts.

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91

rhyme scheme

The pattern of rhyme in a poem, which is written in letters like aabb

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92

meter

The rhythmical pattern, or the arrangement and number of stressed and unstressed syllables (strong and weak beats).

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93

iambic pentameter

The rhythmical pattern of sonnets, five pairs of unstressed and stressed syllables.

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94

imagery

Writing that appeals to one or more of the five senses.

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95

repetition

The repeated use of a sound, word or phrase.

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96

Shakespearean sonnet

Rhymed lyric poem consisting of 14 lines with a rhyme scheme of ABAB CDCD EFEF GG

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97

haiku

An unrhymed 3-line poem in which the first and third lines have five syllables and the middle line has 7 syllables

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98

ode

A lyric poem of praise for something or someone

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99

couplet

Two successive lines of verse that rhyme

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100

Italian sonnet

Rhymed lyric poem consisting of 14 lines with a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA CDCDCD (or CDECDE)

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