PL1-English

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Abstract noun (opposite Concrete noun)

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103 Terms

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Abstract noun (opposite Concrete noun)

Something which we experience as an idea, not seeing, touching,…

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Active

The subject is usually the person or thing that does the action or is responsible

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3

Adjective

to describe people, things, events. They are also used in connections with nouns and pronouns

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4

Adverb

Used to say when, where or how something happens

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Adverb particle

Short adverb like up, out, off often used in phrasal verbs

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6

Affirmative

A sentence that makes a positive statement

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7

Agent

In a passive sentence: by whom or what an action is done

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8

Article

A, an, the are the articles: a/an indefinite articles, the definite article

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9

Aspect

Is included in the term tense but grammarians prefer to separate it and say progressive and perfetctive (not perfect) aspect

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10

Auxiliary verbs

Verbs used with other verbs to make tenses, passive forms,…

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11

Clause

Part of a sentence that contains subject and verb usually joined to the rest of the sentence by a conjunction

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12

Cleft sentence

Sentence in which special emphasis is given to one part “what I need is a drink”

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13

Collective noun

Singular word for a group “team”

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14

Comparative

Form of an adjective or adverb +er like more + adj/adv

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15

Compound

Verb, adjective, noun, preposition made of two parts

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16

Conditional

Verb forms composed by the auxiliary would or should (I and we) or a clause (or sentence) that contains if

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17

Conjunction

Word that joins clauses together

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18

Continuous/progressive

Verb form made with the auxiliary be + …ing

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19

Contraction

Short form: subj. and aux. verbs or an aux verb and the word not are joined together also with non aux "John’ll”

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20

Co-ordinate clause

One of two or more main or subordinate clauses of equal value that are connected

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21

copular verb/ link verb

Verbs which link a subject to a complement that describes it “he seems unhappy”

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22

Countable noun

Noun that can have a plural form an can be used with the indefinite article

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23

Demonstrative

This, that, those and these

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24

Determiner

One of a group of words that begin noun phrases (remember IL)

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25

Direct speech

Speech reported directly without changing the tense

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26

Discourse marker

Word or expression that shows a connection between what it is said and the wider context: as a matter of fact

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27

Ellipsis

Leaving out words when the meaning can be understood by the context

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28

Emphasis

Giving special importance to one part of a word or a sentence

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29

Emphatic pronoun

Reflexive pronoun used to emphasize a noun or a pronoun “I will tell him MYSELF”

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30

formal

Styled used politely to talk to strangers on special occasion, literary writing, business letters,…

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31

Future

Verb form made with the auxiliary shall/will + inf without to

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32

Future perfect

A verb form made with shall /will +have+past participle

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33

Future progressive

Verb form made with shall/will+ ing

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34

Gender

Grammatical forms that show differences about masculine, feminine and neuter, or between human and non human

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35

Gerund

Form of a verb ending with + ing used like a noun

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36

Grammar

Rules that show how words are combined or changed to show certain kinds of meaning

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37

Hypothetical

Words and structures that are used tor hypothetical situations that may not happen or are imaginary

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38

Defining relative clause

Relative clauses which identities a noun

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39

Imperative

Form of the verb used to give orders, make suggestions,....

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40

Indirect speech

Structure in which we report what somebody said by making a part of our own sentence by changing the tense

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41

Infinitive

Base form of a word (usually with to)

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42

Informal

Style used in ordinary conversations

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43

-ing form

Like gerund and present participle

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44

Interrogative

Words or sentences used for asking something

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45

Intransitive

Verb that doesn’t have an object and cannot be used with passive

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46

Irregular

Doesn’t follow the normal rules or the form

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47

Inversion

Auxiliary or verb comes before its subject

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48

Main clause, subordinate clause

Sentences are composed by a main clause and then by one or more subordinate clauses, which act like a part of the main clause

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49

Main verb/full verb

Phrase that contains one or more auxiliary verbs together with e the main verb, which expresses the main meaning while auxiliary add grammatical information

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50

Modal auxiliary verb

Verbs like can, should, must,…

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51

Negative

The word not is used with the verb

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52

Non-defining (non-identifying) relative clause

Relative clause that doesn’t identify the noun it refers to: gives additional information to the subject

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53

Noun

Words used with an article

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54

Noun phrase

Group of words which acts as the subject, object or complement in a clause

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55

Number

With which it can be differentiated singular and plural grammatically

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56

Object

Noun phrase or pronoun that comes after the verb in an active clause

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57

Direct object

Refers to a person or a thing affected by the action of the verb

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58

Indirect object

Refers to a person who receives the direct object

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59

Past participle

Verb form like broken used to form perfect tenses, adjectives and passives

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60

Past perfect

Verb made with had and past participle

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61

Past progressive

Mede with was/were + …ing

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62

Perfect

Made with the auxiliary have/has + past participle

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63

Perfect infinitive

(To) have + past participle

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64

Person

Differences in point of view (first, second, third person)

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65

Personal pronouns

I, me, you, he, him,…

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66

Phrase

Two or more words that function together as a group

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67

Phrasal verb

Verb made up of two part: verb + adverb particle “fill up”

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68

Plural

Used to refer to more than one person or thing

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69

Possessive

Form used to show possession

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70

Possessive pronoun

My, your, his, mine, yours,…

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71

Preparatory subject/object

Soressa

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72

Preposition

On, off, of, into followed by a noun or a pronoun

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73

Prepositional verb

Verb made up by two words: turn off

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74

Present participle

Form of verb ending in +ing used as a verb, composition of verb, gerund or adjective

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75

Present perfect

Verb made with have/has + past participle

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76

Present progressive

Verne made with am/are/is + ing

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77

Progressive

Verb made with be + ing and to make it progressive infinitive just add to

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78

Pronoun

Used instead of a more precise noun or noun phrase

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79

Proper noun/name

Name of a particular place, organization, person,… (ONU, Pascal, Brazil)

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80

Quantifier

Determiner used to describe quantities

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81

Question tag or tag question

Consist on an auxiliary verb and a pronoun subject put at the end of the sentence: Isn’t it?

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82

Reflexive pronoun

Myself, yourself, himself,…

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83

Regular

following the normal rules or having the usual form

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84

relative clause

clause which modifies a noun usually introduced by who or which

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85

relative pronoun

pronouns that connects the relative clause to its noun usually introduced by who, which, whom, that, whose

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86

sentence

group of words that express a statement, command, question or exclamation. It has one or more clauses

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87

Singular

Grammatical form used to talk about one person, thing, etc

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88

Slang

Word or expression or special use of language found in informal speech (often used by a particular group of people)

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89

Split infinitive

Adverb that comes between to and the rest of the sentence “to easily understand”

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90

Standard

Form of a language that is most generally accepted for use in government, law, business, edu and lit

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91

Statement

Sentence that gives information not a question

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92

Subject

Noun phrase or pronoun that normally comes before the verb in an affirmative clause (the verb refers to it)

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93

Subordinate clause

Clause which functions as part of another clause like subject, object or adverbial in the main clause of a sentence

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94

Superlative

Form of adverb or an adjective made with the suffix -est

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95

Swearword

Taboo words used to express strong emotions or emphasis

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96

Syllable

Normally has a vowel and one or more consonants after and/or before it

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97

Taboo word

Word connected to a subject which is not spoken freely so that some of its vocabulary is considered shocking

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98

Tag

Short phrase added to the end of a sentence

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99

Tense

Verb form that shows the time of an action, event or state

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100

Transitive

Transitive verb are the ones that can have an object

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