psych honors midterm exam

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133 Terms

1

pilot study

trying out a study on a small scale (few participants) to determine whether there are problems with the research methods

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intuition

relying on common sense as a means of knowing things about the world

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3

deduction

using logical reasoning and current knowledge as a means of knowing things about the world

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4

authority

relying on a knowledgeable person as a means of knowing things about the world

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5

observation

relying on what one observes as a means of knowing things about the world

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6

research

_____ is a reliable way to “know” things and to support (or discredit) claims about fact and fiction.

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7

empericism

gaining knowledge through systematic observation of the world

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8

determinism

the assumption that phenomena have identifiable causes

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9

parsimony

the assumption that the simplest explanation of a phenomenon is most likely to be correct (occam’s razor)

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10

testability

the assumption that explanations of behavior can be tested and falsified through observation

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11

falsifiability

the idea that the strongest hypotheses can be challenged

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12

confirmation bias

seeking only evidence that supports our beliefs and ignoring evidence that contradicts those beliefs.

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13

basic research

research conducted with the goal of understanding fundamental processes of phenomena

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14

applied research

research conducted with the goal of solving everyday problems

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15

external validity

the degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside the study; often a major concern of applied researchers, as they aim to solve real-world problems, and their results cannot be limited to laboratory conditions.

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16

theory

an explanation of behavior that can be tested through research studies; these can help to guide research questions.

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17

descriptive research question

a research question that asks about the presence of a behavior, how frequently it is exhibited, or whether there is a relationship between different behaviors.

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18

causal research question

a research question that asks what cause a specific behavior to occur

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19

scientific method

any good research question should be able to be tested via the _____

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20

literature review

a process of searching for and reviewing previous studies related to a study being developed to add to the knowledge in an area and make appropriate predictions about the data.

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21

variable

an attribute that can vary across individuals

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22

peer review

a process that takes place prior to the publication of an article in many journals where experts make suggestions for improving an article and make a recommendation about whether an article should be published in the journal (adds credibility)

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23

abstract

a short (120-150 word) summary of an article that appears at the beginning of the article and in searchable databases of journal articles, includes a brief, sentence long summary of each section of the paper.

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24

introduction

a section of an APA-style article that introduces the topic of the study, reviews relevant background studies, and presents predictions for the data.

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method

section of an APA-style article that describes the participants, design, stimuli, apparatus, and procedure used in the study.

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results

section of an APA-style paper that presents a summary of the the statistical tests of the predictions, often including tables and figures

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27

discussion

section of an APA-style paper that compares the results of a study to the predictions and the results of previous studies (should include conclusions drawn from the study as well as addressing of limitations).

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28

hypothesis

a prediction regarding the results of a research study.

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29

theory-driven hypothesis

a hypothesis for a study that is based on a theory about the behavior of interest

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30

deductive reasoning

the process of using general information to make a specific prediction

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31

data-driven hypothesis

a hypothesis for a study that is based on the results of previous, related studies

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32

inductive reasoning

using specific information to make a more general prediction.

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33

descriptive hypothesis

a prediction about the results of a study that describes the behavior or the relationship between behaviors.

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34

causal hypothesis

a prediction about the results of a study that includes the causes of a behavior.

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35

nuremberg code

a set of ethical guidelines developed for research with human participants based on information: participation must be consensual and voluntary (can be withdrawn at any time), research must contribute to scientific knowledge, and researchers must avoid unnecessary risk/harm.

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36

APA code items later added to the nuremburg code

reduction of harm due to deception and assurance of confidentiality of participant data

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37

informed consent

consent obtained from participants for participation in research after the participants have been informed about the purpose, procedure, and risks of the research.

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38

coercion

forcing participants to participate in or continue research without their explicit informed consent (Tuskegee experiments)

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39

deception

misleading participants about the purpose or procedures of a research study (milgram’s shock studies)

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40

milgram’s (1963) obedience study

looked at how influenced people are by the instruction of authority when it comes to committing harm to others by having participants administer shocks at the order of a researcher.

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41

confederate

a person who is part of a research study but acts as though they are not in order to deceive the participant about the study’s purpose

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42

zimbardo’s (1973) prison experiment

studied how the social roles placed on us influence our behavior by placing college students in the roles of prisoners and guards.

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43

debriefing

discussing the purpose of a research study with participants, often done at the end of a study.

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44

belmont report

lists the responsibilities of researchers as they conduct research with human participants and the right of those participants before, during, and after a study (includes respect for persons, beneficence, and justice).

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45

consent form

a form provided to the participants at the beginning of a research study to obtain their consent for the study and to explain the study’s purpose, risks, and the participants’ rights

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46

risk-benefit analysis

weighing the risks against the benefits of a research study to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

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47

confidentiality

the idea that it is the researcher’s responsibility to protect the participants’ identities and rights to privacy during and after the research study.

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48

institutional review board (IRB)

a committee of knowledgeable individuals who oversee the ethics of research with human participants conducted at an institution.

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49

demand characteristics

a source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior based on their perception of the study and its purpose (explains the need for deception)

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50

field study

an experiment conducted in the participants’ natural environment

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51

institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC)

a committee of knowledgeable individuals that oversees the ethics of research with nonhuman animal subjects at an institution

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52

plagiarism

claiming another’s work or ideas as one’s own.

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53

internal validity

the degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior.

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54

higher, lower

generally, the ___ the external validity, the ___ the internal validity.

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55

reliability

the degree to which the results of a study can be replicated under similar conditions

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56

operational definition

the definition of an abstract concept used by a researcher to measure or manipulate (quantify) the concept in a research study

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57

dependent/response variable

a variable that is measured or observed from an individual

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58

naturalistic observation

a data collection technique involving noninvasive observation of individuals in their natural environment (typically involving some sort of coding scheme)

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59

inter-observer/-rater reliability

a measure of the degree to which different observers record or code behavior in similar/matching ways (or in different ways).

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60

survey research

a research study that uses the survey observational technique to measure behaviors.

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61

close-ended response scale

participants respond to survey questions according to the response options provided by the researcher

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62

quantitative data

numerical data

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63

open-ended response scale

participants respond to survey questions in any manner they feel is appropriate for the question

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64

qualitative data

nonnumerical participant responses

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65

interviews

a data collection technique that involves direct questioning of individuals about their behaviors and attitudes

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66

construct validity

indicates that a survey measures the behavior it is designed to measure

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67

systematic observation

data collection technique where control is exerted over the conditions under which the behavior is observed

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68

archival data

a data collection technique that involves the analysis of preexisting data.

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69

content analysis

an archival data collection technique that involves analysis of the content of an individual’s spoken or written record (similar to coding)

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70

case study

a research design that involves intensive study or particular individuals and their behaviors (often used when exploring a potentially new condition)

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71

small-n design

an experiment conducted with one or few participants to better understand the specific behavior of those individuals (results cannot be generalized)

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72

correlational study

a type of research design that examines the relationships between multiple dependent variables, without directly manipulating any of the variables

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73

predictor variable

the dependent variable in a correlational study that is used to predict the score on another variable

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74

outcome variable

the dependent variable in a correlational study that is being predicted by the predictor variable

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75

positive relationship

the variables change together in the same direction

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76

negative relationship

a relationship between variables characterized by an increase in one variable that occurs with a decrease in the other variable

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77

scatterplot

a graph showing the relationship between two dependent variables for a group of individuals

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78

third-variable problem

the presence of extraneous factors in a study that affect the dependent variable and can decrease the internal validity of a study

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79

experiment

a type of research design that involves the manipulation of an independent variable allowing control of extraneous variables that could affect the results

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80

independent variable

a variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the researcher such that the labels of the variable change across or within subjects in the experiment

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81

levels of the independent variable

different situations or conditions that participants experience in an experiment because of the manipulation of the independent variable

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82

experimental group

the group of participants in an experiment that experience the treatment level of the independent variable

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83

control group

the group of participants in an experiment that do not experience the treatment level of the independent variable.

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84

confounding variables

an extraneous factor present in a study that may affect the results

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85

random assignment

participants are randomly assigned to levels of the independent variable in an experiment to control for individuals differences as an extraneous variable.

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86

placebo

a “false” or fake treatment given to the control group to allow all groups to believe that they are receiving treatment

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87

quasi-experiment

a type of research design where a comparison is made, as in an experiment, but no random assignment of participants to groups occurs

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88

ex post facto design

a quasi-experiment where subjects are grouped based on a characteristic they already possess (like age or gender)

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89

pretest-posttest design

a type of research design (often a quasi-experiment) where behavior is measured both before and after a treatment or condition is implemented.

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90

nominal scale

a scale of data measurement that involves nonordered categorical responses (college major, gender identity, etc.)

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91

ordinal scale

a scale of data measurement that involves ordered categorical responses that are not assumed to be equidistant from each other (ex: ranking your favorite cereals from best to worst)

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92

interval scale

a scale of data measurement that involves numerical responses that are equally spaced, but scores are not ratios of each other and there is no absolute zero (ex: fahrenheit temperature, SAT scores)

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93

likert scale

a scale of measurement that measures a participant’s agreement or disagreement with different types of statements, often with a rating from 1 to 5 or 1 to 7.

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94

ratio scale

a scale of measurement that involves numerical responses, where scores are ratios of each other (ex: weight, time)

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95

reaction time

a measurement of the length of time it takes to complete a task (ex of interval scale)

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96

nonverbal scale

a survey response scale that involves pictorial response categories for participants with low verbal scales (often used with children who may struggle to understand existing concepts or operational definitions)

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97

face validity

on the surface, a scale or study appears to be intuitively valid; the scale seems to measure what you want it to or think it does.

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98

presence/absence variable

a variable that involves a manipulation with a level that involves the treatment and a level that does not involve the treatment

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99

bivalent independent variable

an independent variable with two levels; a design is considered this if it contains only one of this kind of independent variable.

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100

type variable

a variable that involves a manipulation of the types of treatment (ex: using 3 different versions of an ad to see which is the most persuasive)

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