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Case or Case study

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Case or Case study

Is a real business story that requires you to step into a role of a manager or member of a management team that faces a dilemma, or the role of a consultant assisting an organization that is facing an issue

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Case studies provides you

the opportunity to apply your knowledge and skills into real-life or realistic situations

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Case analysis is used as a

Learning tool to practice the art and science of management

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true or false

There is only one right answer for every case study

False answers will vary and there is not a single right solution

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In all cases you are to create your own…

Solutions as well as support them using your own analysis

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Learning the case method will help you develop…

essential management competencies, skills, and abilities.

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Before reading the case, you must

read the course requirements in the syllabus or on the course website

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When reading a case for the first time, what should you resist doing?

the temptation to highlight important facts and to begin doing analysis and generating alternative solutions

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When reading a case for the first time, what should you do?

Establish who is the decision maker and what decisions need to be made

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What should you highlight after reading a case?

highlight any questions raised by the principal character and case facts in order to extract them for later

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How many times should you read a case?

2 times. one is for the initial reading to understand the issue and the other for specific and relevant facts

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Case Analysis have four basic steps:

  1. Identifying the Issue

  2. Analyze the Issue

  3. Develop and evaluate alternative solutions

  4. make recommendations for actions

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Case guide

Are designed as an overview of the case method and provide a general template or pattern for case analysis

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Class discussion

Instructor will use discussions of a case to apply and supplement lecture material

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refers to the full process of applying the case method and refers to the steps of probing and dissecting the issue at hand

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The first step of analyzing a case

identifying the organization’s issues, problems, and opportunities (collectively referred to as Issues)

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Who can provide important clues for a case?

  1. The principal actor or character of the case

  2. The instructor

  3. The author of the case

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If you have not answered all the questions of a case, it is likely that…

You left out an important issue or became sidetracked by a minor one

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To correctly identify Issues…

it is important to distinguish between symptoms and underlying causes

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what question should you ask when uncovering issues


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When you identify your issue, you may need to…

reduce it to a manageable size to enable you to carry out subsequent steps of your analysis

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Use case facts to help…

build logical arguments, develop findings, and draw educated inferences than casual guesses

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Many important case facts are contained in a

case’s figures and exhibits

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Case facts include

Data about worldwide market size, competition, the company’s revenue and profit, industry sales, product prices, and organizational charts

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Another aspect of analysis is the use of

Business concepts and tools to analyze the issue

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To analyze the issue of an accounting case, you could use

tools like contribution margin analysis or capital budgeting

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To analyze organizational behavior, you could use

equity theory or expectancy theory

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In a marketing case, you could apply

the model of the product life cycle and the concept of a target market. you can also calculate market shares or changes within them

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In an integrated strategic management case, you might

apply the concepts of the value chain and competitive advantage, compute financial ratios and apply tools such as a competitive position matrix and porter’s five framework

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Measuring alternatives against decision criteria can help reduce

Bias and help keep your analysis consistent

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When identifying pros and cons, it is best to

be very specific as possible

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EX: instead of saying that market shares will rise. you can say

Market shares will rise by 3% to 4%

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when working with financial measures, you must

incorporate all information about revenue and cost into a profitability measure

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is a solution that is considered “costly” or “time consuming” the worst choice?

No. in some cases a costly solution could produce a sufficient advantage

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The last step of the case is to

choose your recommended solution

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When basing your recommendation, you should avoid what?

recommending any further information to be obtained or additional analysis that needs to be completed

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Performing a case analysis can be used for what purposes

Discussing in class, writing a report, making a presentation, or writing a case exam

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Your willingness to participate in class will

enable you to consider a variety of viewpoints and insights and gain the full benefit of the class

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Active listening helps

build on analyses and arguments presented by the previous speaker

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When listening to a speaker, avoid

making judgments about a speaker’s idea; quick judgement would limit your willingness to listen

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When entering a discussion, approach with

an open mind

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Listening etiquette starts with

focused attention on the speaker, give feedback to the speaker through body language

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What should you not do for listening etiquette?

having side conversations and being distracted by electronic devices

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When writing your analysis, what should you avoid?

Jargon and decorative elements

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When writing your analysis, you should keep your sentences…

Simple and straightforward

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When writing your analysis, you must Always use what type of tone?

A professional one. (the only exception could be if you played the role of a consultant).

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When writing your case report, focus purely on what is

Important and clearly identify those issues

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When writing your issue statement, it’s best to let your readers

know what to expect to ensure that the issues you identify are the same ones you’ve analyzed

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For complex cases, your issue statement could identify…

sub-issues associated with each issue

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Business concepts that are used within your report should…

add value to your report and must be relevant to the situation

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You should not assume that your reader…

is familiar with business models and so it’s best to briefly explain them

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A case report is not a…

Academic report.

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Most reports will not require

external research (unless the professor says so)

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rather than providing a complete evaluation of the pros and cons of all the alternatives, it would be sufficient to

only briefly mention some of the alternatives and give a short rationale on why they were discarded

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Using too many list or tables can

lead to the report looking cluttered

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When doing your recommendations, avoid

introducing a new analysis or new alternative

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Write your executive summary after…

you’ve written your report

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The body of the report is

divided into sections for issues, analysis of issues, alternatives, and recommendations

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The conclusion to your report is

the final section written and should be brief

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Figures or appendices

are used to capture some of your analysis or recommendation in a form more succinct than a prose

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All quantitative appendices should include

a clear trail of assumptions, calculations, and explanation

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For your conclusion, avoid the tendency to

preface conclusions and recommendations using words like “I think” or “I believe”

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overusing the word “must” can

reflect a lack of distinction between what is essential and what is a recommendation

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Oral presentations are

used to highlight the main findings in an accompany written report

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Oral presentations should give

a broad overview of the main issue and recommendations

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A good oral presentation should

convey information in a format allows your audience to understand your intended message

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A good presentation should also address

The needs and knowledge of the intended audience

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Your presentation should be accompanied by

audiovisual aids like presentation slides

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Presentation slides should be

Simple and use at least 28-point font

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Your presentation should not

be filled with the text due to your audience now being more focused on what’s written rather than your presentation.

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During your presentation remember to

Speak loud and clear so that your audience can hear you

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When doing a presentation, It is more comfortable to…

stand behind the podium to read your notes, step out of it (at least periodically) to connect with your audience

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Practicing your presentation skills will

help you adjust towards what you need to say as well as prepare while being in front of an audience

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All members of a team presentation should

be involved with some aspect of the presentation itself

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Three main theories of Business Ethics

  1. Moral principals and Norms (Deontologism)

  2. The human goods at Stake (Utilitarianism)

  3. The education of character for the good life (Virtue Ethics)

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Deontologism, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Ethics are in what perspective?

First Person Persective

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Determining what is right or wrong based on the outcomes of your actions

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theory that says actions are good or bad according to a clear set of rules.

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Virtue Ethics

deals with honesty and morality of an individual

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Business ethics is usually taught through

Moral Ethics

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Dilemmas are

artificially designed situations in which there is a conflict of principles that leads to a choice between mutually exclusive alternatives that, at first sight, are morally wrong.

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What question is involved with the deontological approach?

“What is the right thing to do?”

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A software developer is working on a new program. The developer realizes that there is a problem with the product they are about to launch to the public. Instead of doing something about it, he decides not to take action and sells the program as is.

This decision is considered…

Unethical since it did not follow the norms established by the company regarding quality standards.

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A software developer is working on a new program. The developer realizes that there is a problem with the product they are about to launch to the public. Instead of doing something about it, he decides not to take action and sells the program as is.

This problem has now turned into a


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Business Ethics usually follow a

Utilitarian Calculus, or a cost-benefit analysis that helps managers obtain more efficient results

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The consideration of potential consequences might also include

The protection or advancement of morally relevant values, such as social welfare, Human health, and employment

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The second type of dilemma that occurs within the Utilitarian Approach would be

Principles and consequences

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What is the responsibility of managers?

To maximize value for their shareholders.

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The rational approach assumes that

In an ideal world, it should be possible to reach a conclusion with a single, rational choice and should lead to the best course of action.

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Moral Landscape

the idea that each individual has their own convictions, as well as each society, has their own culture.

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For virtue ethics, we develop them from the perspective of

the acting person

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Virtue ethics emphasizes three different levels of discourse

The psychological, sociological, and deciding if our plans in life and our role models are good or not.

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The psychological actions of virtue ethic is compromised through three categories

Actions, Habits, and character

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A good habit is called a


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A bad habit is called a


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A role is

A kind of behavior that we need to display for the success of a certain form of human cooperation

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Different roles demand

Different characters

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The concepts of roles becomes more difficult when you consider

that we usually play different roles in different communities or forms of human cooperation

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A job description provides

a formal definition of a role

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Role models are

crucial in defining the requirements of a role and in providing clues on how they perform

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