AP Psychology Ultimate Guide (copy)

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Operational definition

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545 Terms

1

Operational definition

________ describes the specific procedure used to determine the presence of a variable.

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2

Validity

________ is the extent to which an instrument measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

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3

Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov

________ trained dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a tone, demonstrating stimulus- response learning.

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4

Freud

________ believed that early life experiences shape personality and that the unconscious is the source of desires, thoughts, and memories.

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5

Reliability

________ is consistency or repeatability.

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6

G Stanley Hall

________ founded the American Psychological Association, founded a psychology lab using introspection at Johns Hopkins University, and became its first president.

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7

Descriptive Statistics

________: Numbers that summarize a set of research data obtained from a sample.

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8

Pavlovs experiments

________ at the beginning of the 20th century paved the way for behaviorism, which dominated psychology in America from the 1920s to the 1960s.

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9

Empirical philosopher Locke

________ believed that mind and body interact symmetrically (monism), knowledge comes from observation, and what we know comes from experience since we are born without knowledge,"a blank slate "(tabula rasa)

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10

Participation

________ in a study should be voluntary, and not coerced or influenced as part of a grade, raise, or promotion.

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11

Statistical significance

________ (p) is a measure of the likelihood that the difference between groups results from a real difference between the two groups rather than from chance alone.

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12

American Psychological Association

The ________ (APA) lists ethical principles and code of conduct for the scientific, educational, or professional roles for all psychologists.

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13

Wundt

________ used trained introspection to study the mind's structure and identify consciousness's basic elements- sensations, feelings, and images.

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14

Nature nurture controversy

________: which our behavior is inborn or learned through experience.

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15

standard deviation

Variance and ________ (SD) indicate the degree to which scores differ from each other and vary around the mean value for the set.

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16

Sigmund Freud

________ opposed behaviorists in Austria.

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17

Descartes

________ defended mind- body dualism (Cogito ergo sum "- I think, therefore I am) "and that what we know is innate.

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18

Neuropsychologists

________ explore the relationships between brain /nervous systems and behavior.

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19

scientific experiment

In a(n) ________, the researcher controls a variable and observes the response.

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20

modern psychology

The model is a unifying theme in ________ drawing from and interacting with the seven approaches to explain behavior.

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21

median

The ________ is the middle score when the set of data is ordered by size.

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22

mode

The ________ is the most frequently occurring score in a set of research data.

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23

Roots of psychology

________ can be traced to philosophy and physiology /biology over 2, 000 years ago in ancient Greece.

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24

Case Study

________: is an in- depth examination of a specific group or single person that typically includes interviews, observations, and test scores.

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25

Meta analysis

________ provides a way of statistically combining the results of individual research studies to reach an overall conclusion.

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26

Survey Method

________: researchers use questionnaires or interviews to ask a large number of people questions about their behaviors, thoughts, and attitudes.

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27

Clinical psychologists

________ treat people with temporary psychological crises like grief, addiction, or social issues and those with chronic psychiatric disorders.

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28

Social psychologists

________ focus on how a persons mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people.

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29

Humanists

________ value feelings and believe people are naturally positive and growth- seeking.

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30

Wilhelm Wundt

In 1879, ________ founded scientific psychology by founding a laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, to study immediate conscious sensation.

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31

Inferential statistics

________ are used to interpret data and draw conclusions.

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32

Psychoanalytic theory

________ explained mental disorders, personality, and motivation through unconscious internal conflicts.

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33

Demand characteristics

________: The clues participants discover about the purpose of the study, including rumors they hear about the study suggesting how they should respond.

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34

Variables

________ are factors with multiple values.

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35

Variability

________ describes the spread or dispersion of scores for a set of research data or distribution.

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36

Psychologists

________ studied social and environmental factors affecting cultural differences in behavior.

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37

Double

________- blind procedure, a research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group.

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38

Margaret Floy Washburn

Titchener's first graduate student and first psychology PhD was ________.

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39

Frequency polygon

________- a line graph that replaces the bars with single points and connects the points with a line.

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40

Single blind procedure

________, a research design in which the participants dont know which treatment group- experimental or control- they are in.

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41

psychological factors

The biopsychosocial model integrates biological processes, ________, and social forces to provide a more complete picture of behavior and mental processes.

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42

Placebo effect

________ is now used to describe any cases when experimental participants change their behavior in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation.

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43

Random selection

________ can be achieved by putting all the names in a hat and picking out a specified number of names, by alphabetizing the roster of enrollees and choosing every fifth name, or by using a table of random numbers to choose participants.

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44

arithmetic average

The mean is the ________ of the set of scores.

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45

Edward Titchener

________ brought introspection to his Cornell University lab, analyzed consciousness into its basic elements, and investigated how they are related.

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46

Nature-nurture controversy

which our behavior is inborn or learned through experience

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47

Sample

a subgroup of the population

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48

Experimental group

receives the treatment

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49

Control group

does not receive the treatment

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50

Between-subjects design

The participants in the experimental and control groups are different individuals

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51

Confounding variables

Differences between the experimental group and the control group other than those resulting from the independent variable

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52

Subjects

attend the same two sessions upon which the quiz is based

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53

Demand characteristics

The clues participants discover about the purpose of the study, including rumors they hear about the study suggesting how they should respond

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54

Placebo

The imitation pill, injection, patch, or other treatment

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55

Dopamine

________ stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize hormones and affects alertness and movement.

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56

Serotonin

________ is associated with sexual activity, concentration and attention, moods, and emotions.

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57

Albinism

________ arises from a failure to synthesize or store pigment and also involves abnormal nerve pathways to the brain, resulting in quivering eyes and the inability to perceive depth or three- dimensionality with both eyes.

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58

Paul Broca

________ (1861) performed an autopsy on the brain of a patient, nicknamed Tan, who had lost the capacity to speak, although his mouth and his vocal cords werent damaged and he could still understand language.

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59

Insomnia

________ is the inability to fall asleep and /or stay asleep.

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60

Psychological dependence

________ develops when the person has an intense desire to achieve the drugged state in spite of adverse effects.

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61

Electroencephalograms

________ (EEGs) can be recorded with electrodes on the surface of the skull.

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62

Positron emission tomography

________ (PET) produces color computer graphics that depend on the amount of metabolic activity in the imaged brain region.

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63

Pons

________ generates bursts of action potentials to the forebrain, which is activation.

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64

Cyton

contains cytoplasm and the nucleus, which directs synthesis of such substances as neurotransmitters.

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65

Glutamate

________ is a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information processing throughout the cortex and especially memory formation in the hippocampus.

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66

Nonconscious

________ is the level of consciousness devoted to processes completely inaccessible to conscious awareness, such as blood flow, filtering of blood by kidneys, secretion of hormones, and lower- level processing of sensations, such as detecting edges, estimating size and distance of objects, recognizing patterns, and so forth.

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67

Psychoactive drugs

________ are chemicals that can pass through the blood- brain barrier into the brain to alter perception, thinking, behavior, and mood, producing a wide range of effects from mild relaxation or increased alertness to vivid hallucinations.

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68

Glial cells

________ guide the growth of developing neurons, help provide nutrition for and get rid of wastes of neurons, and form an insulating sheath around neurons that speeds conduction.

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69

Functional MRI

________ (fMRI) shows the brain at work at higher resolution than the PET scanner.

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70

Circadian rhythm

________ is a natural, internal process that regulates the sleep- wake cycle and repeats roughly every 24 hours.

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71

Tay Sachs syndrome

________ produces progressive loss of nervous function and death in a baby.

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72

Freud

________ tried to analyze dreams to uncover the unconscious desires (many of them sexual) and fears disguised in dreams.

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73

Stimulants

________ are psychoactive drugs that activate motivational centers and reduce activity in inhibitory centers of the central nervous system by increasing activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine neurotransmitter systems.

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74

Unconsciousness

________ is characterized by loss of responsiveness to the environment, resulting from disease, trauma, or anesthesia.

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75

Cerebral cortex center

________ for higher- order processes such as thinking, planning, judgment; receives and processes sensory information and directs movement.

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76

endocrine system

consists of glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones into your blood.

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77

Hypothalamus

portion of brain part that acts as endocrine gland and produces hormones that stimulate (releasing factors) or inhibit secretion of hormones by the pituitary.

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78

Gamma aminobutyric acid

________ (GABA) inhibits firing of neurons.

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79

Lucid dreaming

the ability to be aware of and direct ones dreams, has been used to help people make recurrent nightmares less frightening.

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80

Hypnosis

________ is an altered state of consciousness characterized by deep relaxation and heightened suggestibility.

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81

dissociation theory

hypnotized individuals experience two or more streams of consciousness cut off from each other.

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82

Antagonists

________ block a receptor site, inhibiting the effect of the neurotransmitter or agonist.

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83

Tolerance

decreasing responsivity to a drug.

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84

Endocrine

glands include the pineal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland in your brain; the thyroid and parathyroids in your neck; the adrenal glands atop your kidneys; pancreas near your stomach; and either testes or ovaries.

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85

Withdrawal symptoms

________ include intense craving for the drug and effects opposite to those the drug usually induces.

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86

Heritability

________ is the proportion of variation among individuals in a population that is due to genetic causes.

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87

Agonists

________ may mimic a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor site to produce the effect of the neurotransmitter.

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88

Reflex

________ involves impulse conduction over a few (perhaps three) neurons.

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89

Narcotics

________ are analgesics (pain reducers) that work by depressing the central nervous system.

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90

Preconscious

________ is the level of consciousness that is outside of awareness but contains feelings and memories that you can easily bring into conscious awareness.

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91

Depressants

________ are psychoactive drugs that reduce the activity of the central nervous system and induce relaxation.

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92

Central nervous system

consists of your brain and your spinal cord

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93

Somatic nervous system

has motor neurons that stimulate skeletal (voluntary) muscle

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94

Autonomic nervous system

has motor neurons that stimulate smooth (involuntary) and heart muscle

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95

Plasticity

Although specific regions of the brain are associated with specific functions, if one region is damaged, the brain can reorganize to take over its function

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96

Pineal Gland

endocrine gland in brain that produces melatonin that helps regulate circadian rhythms and is associated with seasonal affective disorder

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97

Hypothalamus

portion of brain part that acts as endocrine gland and produces hormones that stimulate (releasing factors) or inhibit secretion of hormones by the pituitary

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98

Pituitary Gland

endocrine gland in brain that produces stimulating hormones, which promote secretion by other glands including TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone); ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), which stimulates the adrenal glands; FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), which stimulates egg or sperm production; ADH (antidiuretic hormone) to help retain water in your body; and HGH (human growth hormone)

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99

Thyroid Gland

endocrine gland in neck that produces thyroxine, which stimulates and maintains metabolic activities

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100

Parathyroids

endocrine glands in neck that produce parathyroid hormone, which helps maintain calcium ion level in blood necessary for normal functioning of neurons

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