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126 Terms

1

buccinator

used to suck in your cheeks

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2

frontalis

wrinkles the forehead horizontally

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3

masseter

prime mover of jaw closure

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4

orbicularis oculi

used in winking

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5

orbicularis oris

the kissing msucle

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6

temporalis

synergist muscle for jaw closure

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7

trapezius

prime mover in elevation of the shoulder

allows you to shrug your shoulders or extend your head

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8

zygomaticus

used to show you’re happy

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9

frontal belly of the epicranius

pulls the eyebrows superiorly

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10

occipital belly of the epicranius

pulls the scalp posteriorly

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11

platysma

draws the corners of the lips downward (clown muscle)

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12

deltoid

prime mover for shoulder abduction

antagonist for the lats

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13

diaphragm

an unpaired muscle; acts with the internal and external intercostals to accomplish inspiration

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14

internal and external intercostals

deep muscles of the thorax that promote the inspiratory phase of breathing

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15

external oblique

part of the abdominal girdle; forms the external lateral walls of the abdomen

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16

internal oblique & transverse abdominus

two muscle pairs that help form the natural abdominal girdle

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17

pectoralis major

prime mover for shoulder flexion and adduction

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18

rectus abdominus

means “straight muscle of the abdomen

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19

sternocleidomastoid

acting alone, each muscle of this pair turns the head towards the opposite shoulder

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20

erector spinae

prime mover of back extension; a deep composite muscle consisting of three columns

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21

latissimus dorsi

muscle that adducts the shoulder and causes extension of the shoulder joint

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22

quadratus lumbordum

fleshy muscle forming part of the posterior abdominal wall that helps maintain upright posture

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23

adductors

muscle group that allows you to draw your legs to the midline of your body, as when standing at attention

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24

fibularis muscles

muscle group of the lateral leg; plantar flex and evert foot

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25

gastrocnemius

toe dancer’s muscle; a two-bellied muscle on the calf

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26

gluteus maximus

used to extend the hip when climbing stairs

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27

gluteus medius

smaller hip muscle commonly used as an injection site

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28

hamstrings

muscle group that extends the thigh and flexes the knee

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29

iliopsoas

hip flexor, deep in pelvis; a composite of two muscles

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30

quadriceps

muscle group that extends the knee

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31

sartorius

straplike muscle that is a weak thigh flexor; like the tailor’s muscle

*longest muscle

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32

soleus

like the two-bellied muscle that lies over it, this muscle is a plantar flexor

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33

tibialis anterior

inverts and dorsiflexes the foot

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34

biceps brachii

muscle that allows you to bend (flex) the elbow

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35

extensor carpi radialis

found in posterior compartment of the forearm

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36

extensor digitorum

muscle that extends the fingers

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37

flexor carpi ulnaris

wrist flexor that follows the ulna

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38

flexor digitorum superficialis

muscle tht flexes the fingers

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39

triceps brachii

muscle that extends the elbow

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40

what is the deepest abdominal muscle?

transversus abdominus

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41

what is isotonic movement?

tension remains the same; length can change

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42

concentric

muscle shortens

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43

eccentric

muscle lengthens

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44

what is isometric movement?

length of the muscle remains the same; tension holds

(wall sit)

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45

what do the muscles of he trunk do?

protect your spine

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46

what are the muscles of the erector spinae?

illiocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

(i like spaghetti)

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47

what is the order of the abdominal muscles from most superficial to deepest?

external oblique, internal oblique, rectus abdominus, transversus abdominus

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48

what are the muscles in your hamstrings?

biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendonosus

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49

what are the muscles in your quadriceps?

rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastus medius

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50

why is the psoas special?

it is the only muscle in the body that connects the upper trunk to the lower trunk

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51

psoas

loin

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52

what is the synergist to the iliac psoas?

rectus femoris- it crosses over the hip

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53

what is the requirement to be a hamstring?

has to have its origin on the ischial tuberosity

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54

which is not a hamstring msucle?

short head of the biceps femoris

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55

what is the order of the hamstrings from lateral to medial?

biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

(boys to men)

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56

what is the synergist to the soleus?

gastrocnemius

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57

hallucis

big toe

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58

where do the short and long biceps femoris & the semis insert?

tibia

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59

pollicus

thumb

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60

where are your flexors in your upper body?

anterior side of upper body

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61

where are our extensors in your upper body?

posterior side of upper body

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62

where are your flexors in your lower body?

posterior side of lower body

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63

where are your extensors in your lower body?

anterior side of lower body

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64

name the seven ways to name a muscle

action of the muscle

shape of the muscle

location of the muscle’s origin and/or insertion

number of origins

location of muscle relative to a bone or body region

direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line

relative size of the muscle

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65

what are the functions of muscles?

HRJM2

heat generation

regulate in and out

joint stability

movement

maintain posture

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66

what are the special characteristics of muscles?

CE3

contract

extend

elasticity

exciteable-needs electric signal from nervous system

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67

sarcolemma

muscle plasma membrane

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68

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of a muscle cell

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69

what prefixes mean muscle?

myo, mys, sarco

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70

what is the origin?

muscle attachment that remains fixed

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71

what is the insertion?

muscle attachment that moves

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72

what is the action?

what joint movement a muscle produces

(flexion, extension)

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73

what do muscles only do?

pull

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74

what is the agonist?

prime mover

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75

what is the synergist?

helps the agonist

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76

what is the antagonist?

opposes action of agonist

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77

what is the order of the bundle within a bundle?

bundle/belly→fascicles→fibers→myofibrils→myofilaments

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78

which bundles are organelles in the sarcoplasma?

myofibrils and myofilaments

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79

what are the fibers also called?

muscle cells or myocytes

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80

what is the main bundle/belly wrapped in?

epimysium

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81

what are the fascicles wrapped in?

perimysium

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82

what are the fibers wrapped in?

endomysium

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83

what is special about skeletal muscle cells?

they are multinucleated

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84

what is underneath the endomysium?

sarcolemma

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85

what is the thin filament?

actin

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86

what is the thick filament?

myosin

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87

NMJ

neuro-muscular junction; where neuron “hovers” over muscle fiber

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88

motor neuron

nerve cell that sends signals to muscle or gland

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89

axon terminal

end of axon or neuron

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90

synaptic cleft

space at NMJ

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91

acetycholine (ACh)

neurotransmitter; chemical link w/ neuron and muscle

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92

motor end plate

special area on sarcolemma just under the axon terminal

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93

transverse tubules (t-tubules)

waffle wheel- bisecting myofibrils

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94

sarcoplasmic reticulum

“blue sleeve”- wraps around each myofibril

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95

terminal cisternae

special area of sarcoplasmic reticulum, stores Ca++ ions

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96

triad

2 terminal cisternae & 1 t-tubule

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97

actin

thin filament

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98

tropomyosin

“tough parent” rope on binding sites

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99

troponin

“ally to myosin” sits on top of TM

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100

myosin

thick filament- golf ball heads for cross bridging

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