Psychology Modules 9, 10, and 11

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Pseudoscientific Claim

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1

Pseudoscientific Claim

any assertion that appears scientific but is not based on science (appears to be scientific but is not)

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2

Biological Rhythms

periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning

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3

circadian rhythm

biological rhythem that occurs about every 24 hours (ex temp & wakefulness)

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4

ultraradian rhythms

biological rhythms that occur more than once a day (ex stages of sleep)

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5

infradian rhythms

biological rhythms that occur once a month or once a season (ex menstral cycle)

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6

William Dement

Sleep researcher who discovered and coined the phrase "rapid eye movement" (REM) sleep.

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7

Melatonin

a hormone that helps regulate daily biological rhythms

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8

Reasons for sleep

preservation and resptation

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9

preservation

keeps us protected from the dangers of the night

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10

Restoration

recuperate from the wear and tear of the day

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11

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

a machine that amplifies and records the waves of electrical activity as they sweep across the brain's surface; electrodes placed on the scalp measure these waves

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12

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep

a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur

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13

Hypothalamus

  • Sleep control center in the brain

  • Monitors changes in light or dark in the environment

  • Changes levels of hormones in the body

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14

sleep deprivation

any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems

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15

sleep deprivation effects

  • Decreases efficiency of immune system functioning

  • Safety and accident issues

  • Contributes to hypertension, impaired concentration, irritability, etc.

  • Becoming ill

  • High levels of stress, high blood pressure

  • Increased appetite and eating, weight gain

  • Premature aging

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16

NREM Stage 1 Sleep

  • Breathing is slowed

  • Brain waves become irregular

  • Easy to wake the person, who will insist they are not asleep

  • Rarely lasts longer than 5 mins

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17

NREM Stage 2 Sleep

  • Brain wave cycle slows

  • 1st time through lasts about 20 minutes

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18

NREM Stage 3 Sleep

  • Slow wave sleep

  • 1st time though the stage lasts around 30 minutes, and where one gets rejuvenated

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19

paradoxical sleep

REM when muscles are deeply relaxed but there are high levels of brain activity

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20

insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

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21

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

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22

Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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23

somnbulist

sleepwalker

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24

night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

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25

Bruxism

teeth grinding

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26

enuresis

bed wetting

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27

myoclonus

sudden jerk of a part of a body part occurring during NREM Stage 1 sleep

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28

information processing theory

dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories

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29

physiological function theory

dreams are used to use neural pathways & keep connections open; stimulation for brain

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30

activation-synthesis theory

dreams are the minds attempt to make sense of random neural firings in the brain as one sleeps

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31

cognitive development theory

dream content reflects dreamers' cognitive development- their knowledge and understanding

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32

psychoactive drugs

a chemical substance that alters perceptions, mood, & behavior (ex caffeine, alcohol, nicotine)

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33

withdrawal symptoms

  • the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

  • reverse of the drugs effects

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34

Tolerance

a reduced responsiveness to a drug, promoting the user to take larger doses to achieve the same pleasurable effect previously obtained by smaller doses

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35

types of psychoactive drugs

depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, marajuana

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36

depressants

drugs (like alc and sedatives) that reduce neural activity & slow body functions

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37

Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)

A measure of the amount of alcohol present in a person's blood (0.08 is considered legal intocication)

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38

effects of alcohol

Alc impairs parts of the brain responsible for controlling inhibitions and making judgements

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39

Alcohol (ethyl alcohol)

  • Found in beer, wine, and liquor

  • 2nd most used psychoactive drug (1sr being caffeine)

  • Slows thinking, and impairs physical activity

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40

Alcohol, Memory, and Sleep

  • Studies have shown that alc impairs memory by suppressing the process of events into long term memory

  • Alc impairs REM sleep, further disrupting memory storage

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41

sexomnia

sex while sleeping

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42

REM Behavior Disorder (RBD)

a sleep disorder where you physically act out vivid, often unpleasant dreams with sounds and sudden, often violent arm and leg movements during REM sleep

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43

Kleine Levin Syndrome

sleep disorder characterized by recurring but reversible periods of excessive sleep

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44

Stimulants

drugs (like caffeine, nic, amphetamines & cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions

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45

Caffeine

a stimulant found in coffee, chocolate, tea, and some soft drinks

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46

effects of caffine

  • Provides user with a sense of increased energy, mental alertness, and forced wakefulness

  • Blocks neurological receptor stores that, if activated, sedate the central nervous system

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47

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48

Nicotine

a stimulant found in tobacco

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49

effects of nicotine

  • Effects similar to those of caffeine

  • Very addictive and does not stay in the body very long

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50

Cocaine:

a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant

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51

effects of cocaine

  • Crack: cocaine crystals

  • Blocs the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters

  • Dependency is quick and severe; places extreme strain on the cardiovascular system

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52

Amphetamines

drugs that stimulate neural activity, speeding up body functions

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53

effects of amphetamines

  • Increased energy and mood changes

  • Includes: speed, uppers, and methamphetamine

  • Mimics adrenaline

  • Can cause irreversible changes in mood

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54

Ecstasy (MDMA)

a hallucinogen stimulant that produces lower inhibitions, pleasure feelings, and greater acceptance of others

PTSD

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55

effects of ecstasy

Even moderate users may experience permanent brain damage

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56

Hallucinations

a psychedelic (mind - manifesting) drug, such as LSD, that distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

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57

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide):

a powerful hallucinogenic drug (aka acid)

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58

effects of LSD

  • Effects vary from person to person

  • User can be dangerous to themselves and others

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59

Opioids

  • Oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, heroin, and fentanyl

  • Many are painkillers and highly addictive

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60

Marijuana

includes leaves, sems, resin, and flowers from the hemp plant; when smoked lowers inhibitions and produces a feeling of relaxation and mild euphoria

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61

long term effects of marijuana

  • High risk for depression & possible schizophrenia

  • hard on lungs

  • loss of brain cells

  • memory effects

  • suppressed immune system

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62

drug prevention

  • Have a clear understanding of the painful, long term costs of addiction

  • Have a positive environment that increases self esteem

  • Associate with others who can say no thereby refusing the drug

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63

lucid dreams

dreams in which the dreamer is aware that s/he is dreaming

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64

Consciousness is

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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65

cortisol

stress hormone

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66

Hypnosis

a social interaction in which a hypnotist makes suggestions about perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors and those suggestions are followed

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67

Barbiturates

Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement

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68

Benzodiazepines

Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system without most of the side effects associated with barbiturates

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69

Ecstasy

Hallucinogenic drugs that produces lowered inhibitions, pleasant feelings, and greater acceptance of others

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70

Cocaine

Stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant

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71

What are depressants

Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body function

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72

Endorphins

Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure

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73

Tolerance

Reduced responsiveness to a drug, prompting the user to increase dosage to achieve effects previously obtained by lower doses

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74

Hallucinogens

Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

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75

Opiates

Opium and its derivatives; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and memory

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76

Dependence

A state of physiological and/or psychological need to take more of a substance after continued use

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77

LSD

Powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid

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78

Neuron

nerve cell

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79

Psychoactive Drug

A chemical substance that alters perceptions, mood, or behavior

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80

Withdrawal

The discomfort and distress that follow when a person who is dependent on a drug discontinues the use of that drug, ADVERTISEMENT

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81

We go through 3 types of body rhythms that occur in regular cycles - circadian, ultradian - and that affect our consciousness and psychological processes

What are the body rhythms and how do they affects us?

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82

Sleep deprivation causes psychological changes that can dramatically affect our moods, health and ability to perform physically and mentally

What happens to our bodies when we don't get enough sleep?

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83

Sleep helps restore our body physically and protect us from nighttime hazards

How do we benefit from sleeping?

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84

4 stages

How many stages of sleep our there?

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85

The brain is very active, while the body is paralyzed.

Why is REM sleep described as paradoxical?

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86

insomnia

What is the most common sleep disorder?

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87

circadian

Your sleep-wake cycle is an example of what kind of rhythm?

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88

NREM #3

Which of the following represents the deepest level of sleep?

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89

sleep deficit

Gaining weight & premature aging are both linked to which of the following?

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90

melatonin

Which of the following is a hormone that helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle?

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91

cognitive development

Which of the following dream theories maintains that dreams reflect knowledge and understanding?

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92

paradoxical sleep

During REM sleep, your brain is active and you can process input from your environment. For this reason, REM sleep is also referred to:

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93

sleep apnea

Which of the following sleep disorders is characterized by waking up many times during the night?

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94

avoiding late-night chocolate bars

Which of the following is likely to increase your quality of sleep?

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95

information processing

Which of the following theories would most likely explain dreams as a sorting out of the day's events?

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96

understanding the long-term effects of drugs

Which of the following has been shown to help prevent people from starting drug use?

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97

positive emotion

What is one of the common threads running through several factors that prevent alcoholism relapse?

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98

alcohol impairs memory

Which of the following is true about alcohol

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99

ecstasy

Moderate use of _________ can cause permanent brain damage.

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100

cocaine

Which of the following is primarily a stimulant?

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