MGT ch 6, 7, 8 , 9, 11

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motivation

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197 Terms

1

motivation

a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence

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2

engagement

A term commonly used in the contemporary workplace to summarize motivation levels

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3

expectency theory

A theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses.

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4

expectancy

the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task

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5

self-efficacy

The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the behaviors required on some task.

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6

Past accomplishments

The level of success or failure with similar job tasks in the past.

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7

Vicarious experiences

Observations of and discussions with others who have performed some work task.

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8

Verbal persuasion

Pep talks that lead employees to believe that they can "get the job done."

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9

Emotional cues

Positive or negative feelings that can help or hinder task accomplishment.

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10

Instrumentality

The belief that successful performance will result in the attainment of some outcomes.

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11

Valence

The anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful performance.

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12

Needs

Groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences.

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13

Extrinsic motivation

Desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance.

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14

Intrinsic motivation

Desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own reward.

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15

Meaning of money

The idea that money can have symbolic value (e.g, achievement, respect, freedom) in addition to economic value.

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16

Goal setting theory

A theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort.

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17

Specific and difficult goals

Goals that stretch employees to perform at their maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of their ability.

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18

Self-set goals

The internalized goals that people use to monitor their own progress.

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19

Task strategies

Learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful performance.

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20

Feedback

In job characteristics theory, it refers to the degree to which the job itself provides information about how well the job holder is doing. In goal setting theory, it refers to progress updates on work goals.

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21

Task complexity

The degree to which the information and actions needed to complete a task are complicated.

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22

Goal commitment

The degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to reach it.

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23

S.M.A.R.T. goals

Acronym that stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results-Based, Time-Sensitive goals.

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24

Equity theory

A theory that suggests that employees create a mental ledger of the outcomes they receive for their job inputs, relative to some comparison other.

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25

Comparison other

Another person who provides a frame of reference for judging equity.

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26

Equity distress

An internal tension that results from being overrewarded or underrewarded relative to some comparison other.

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27

Cognitive distortion

A reevaluation of the inputs an employee brings to a job, often occurring in response to equity distress.

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28

Internal comparison

Comparing oneself to someone in the same company.

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29

External comparison

Comparing oneself to someone in a different company.

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30

Psychological empowerment

An energy rooted in the belief that tasks are contributing to some larger purpose.

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31

Meaningfulness

Captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person's own ideals and passions.

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32

Self-determination

A sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks.

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33

Competence

The capability to perform work tasks successfully.

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34

Impact

The sense that a person's actions "make a difference"—that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose.

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35

team

two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose

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36

Types of Teams

work teams, management teams, parallel teams, project teams, action teams

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37

work team

A relatively permanent team in which members work together to produce goods and/or provide services

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38

management team

A relatively permanent team that participates in managerial-level tasks that affect the entire organization

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39

parallel team

A team composed of members from various jobs within the organization that meets to provide recommendations about important issues

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40

project team

A team formed to take on one-time tasks, most of which tend to be complex and require input from members from different functional areas

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41

action team

A team of limited duration that performs complex tasks in contexts that tend to be highly visible and challenging

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42

multiple team membership

a work arrangement in which employees are assigned to multiple teams simultaneously

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43

virtual teams

teams in which the members are geographically dispersed, and interdependent activity occurs through electronic communications - can let workers across countries work virtually and at all times of day

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44

Stages of Team Development

forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning

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45

forming

The first stage of team development, during which members try to get a feel for what is expected of them, what types of behaviors are out of bounds, and who's in charge.

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46

storming

The second stage of team development, during which conflict occurs due to members' ongoing commitment to ideas they bring with them to the team.

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47

norming

The third stage of team development, during which members realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals and consequently begin to cooperate

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48

performing

The fourth stage of team development, during which members are comfortable working within their roles, and the team makes progress toward goals

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49

adjourning

the final stage of group development for temporary groups during which group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance

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50

punctuated equilibrium

a sequence of team development during which not much gets done until the halfway point of a project, after which teams make necessary changes to complete the project on time

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51

task interdependence

the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team

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52

Types of Team Interdependence

pooled, sequential, reciprocal, comprehensive

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53

pooled interdependence

A form of task independence in which group members complete their work assignments independently, and then their work is simply added together to represent the group's output.

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54

sequential interdependence

A form of task interdependence in which group members perform different tasks in a prescribed sequence, and members depend on only the member who comes before them in the sequence.

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55

reciprocal interdependence

A form of task interdependence in which group members interact with only a limited subset of other members to complete the team's work

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56

comprehensive interdependence

A form of task interdependence in which team members have a great deal of discretion in terms of what they do and with whom they interact in the course of the collaboration involved in accomplishing the team's work.

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57

Goal Interdependence

the degree to which team members have a shared goal and align their individual goals with that vision - High degree = very fast/good progress

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58

outcome interdependence

the degree to which team members share equally in the feedback and rewards that result from the team achieving its goals - High = better performance

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59

team composition

The mix of the various characteristics that describe the individuals who work in the team

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60

characteristics of team composition

member roles, member ability, member personality, team diversity, team size

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61

role

the behavior a person is generally expected to display in a given context

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62

leader-staff teams

a type of team that consists of members who make recommendations to the leader who is ultimately responsible for team decisions

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63

team task roles

behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks

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64

team-building roles

behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks - harmonizer, encourager, and compromiser

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65

individualistic roles

behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense of the team - recognition-seeker, aggressor, dominator

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66

disjunctive tasks

tasks with an objectively verifiable best solution for which the member with the highest level of ability has the most influence on team effectiveness

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67

conjunctive tasks

tasks for which the team's performance depends on the abilities of the team's weakest link

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68

additive tasks

tasks for which the contributions from every member add up to determine team performance

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69

team diversity

the degree to which team members are different from one another

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70

multicultural teams

particularly important in joint ventures for the purposes of strategic planning, implementation, and production.

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71

Value in diversity problem-solving approach

a theory that supports team diversity because it provides a larger pool of knowledge and perspectives

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72

Similarity-attraction approach

A theory explaining that team diversity can be counterproductive because people tend to avoid interacting with others who are unlike them

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73

surface-level diversity

Diversity of observable attributes such as race, gender, ethnicity, and age

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74

fault lines

fault of diverse groups where subgroups develop and distract from goal

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75

deep-level diversity

The extent to which people feel that they are truly part of a group (or organization) and that the uniqueness that they bring to the group (or organization) is welcomed and valued.

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76

inclusion

the extent to which people feel that they are truly part of a group (or organizations) and that the uniqueness that they bring to the group (or organizations) is welcomed and valued.

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77

team performance

Quantity and quality of goods or services produced, customer satisfaction, completed reports = moderately correlated with task interdependance

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78

team viability

the likelihood that the team can work together effectively into the future

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79

team commitment

low correlation with task interdependence

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80

hybrid outcome interdependence

when team members receive rewards based on both their individual performance and that of the team to which they belong

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81

Reputation

The prominence of an organization's brand in the minds of the public and the perceived quality of its goods and services

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82

trust

The willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectations about the authority's actions and intentions

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83

Justice

the perceived fairness of an authority's decision making

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84

ethics

the degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms

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85

Disposition-based trust

Trust that is rooted in one's own personality, as opposed to a careful assessment of the trustee's trustworthiness

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86

Cognition-based trust

Trust that is rooted in a rational assessment of the authority's trustworthiness

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87

Affect-based trust

trust that depends on feelings toward the authority that go beyond rational assessment

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88

trust propensity

a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of individuals and groups can be relied upon

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89

Trustworthiness

characteristics or attributes of a person that inspire trust, including competence, character, and benevolence

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90

ability

relatively stable capabilities of people for performing a particular range of related activities

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91

benevolence

The belief that an authority wants to do good for an employee, apart from any selfish or profit-centered motives

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92

integrity

the perception that the authority adheres to a set of values and principles that the trustor finds acceptable

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93

distributive justice

The perceived fairness of decision-making outcomes

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94

procedural justice

the perceived fairness of decision-making processes

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95

interpersonal justice

The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment received by employees from authorities

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96

abusive supervision

the sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact

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97

informational justice

the perceived fairness of the communications provided to employees from authorities

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98

whistle-blowing

when employees expose illegal actions by their employer

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99

four-component model

A model that argues that ethical behaviors result from the multistage sequence of moral awareness, moral judgment, moral intent, and ethical behavior

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100

moral awareness

when an authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation

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