Music History Test 2

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Musica enchiriadis

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45 Terms

1

Musica enchiriadis

"music handbook" describing a type of polyphonic singing called Organum, includes parallel organum. 9th century

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2

Scolica enchiriadis

(Latin, "Comments on the Handbook") Handbook accompaniment to Musica enchiriadis.

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3

Polyphony

two or more independent melodies going on at the same time

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4

Parallel organum

the top line is the melody of the chant, and the harmony is a fifth below every note of the melody

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5

Composite organum

still parallel organum, but this is four parts, the two organalis parts being an octave apart, the two principalis parts being an octave apart, and the organalis and principalis parts being 5ths apart

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6

Modified parallel organum

start the phrase unison, the original chant moves up but the harmony stays the same until the melody reaches a fourth or fifth apart, and then it moves with the melody

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7

Ad organum faciendum

(literally, "How to Make Organum") was a treatise from around 1100 that described how to sing free organum, organalis part started to develop its own melody but still moved note by note with the principalis part

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8

Florid organum

tenor: original chant melody that's on the bottom, and it is stretched out into long notes duplum: new melismatic melody is added onto the top

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9

Anonymous IV

  • Possibly written by a student from the Paris university

  • Manuscript of music from the early 12th century to the time it was written

  • Rhythmic notation began around the time of Perotin (a composer from the Notre Dame cathedral) and not much before

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10

Organum purum

when the tenor held in long note values

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11

Discant style

both the tenor and duplum are measured and have rhythm

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12

Clausula

section of organum that's in discant style

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13

De Garlandia

wrote De musica mensurabilis

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14

Leonin

wrote Magnus liber organi, or "Great Book of Organum," a book of organum duplums and states the two styles of organum

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15

Perotin

  • tended to write organum in three or four parts

  • according to Anonymous IV, was better at writing discant clausula than Leonin

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16

Substitute clausula

a section of discant organum that is separated and preserved to be used as a separate piece; keep the tenor, change the duplum, and write your own

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17

Motet

new genre of music where you take a clausula and add text to the upper voice and change the name of the duplum to "motetus"

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18

Motetus

when text is added to the duplum of a substitute clausula

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19

Double motet

two different texts above the tenor (i.e. triplum, motetus, tenor)

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20

Triple motet

three different texts above the tenor (i.e. quadruplum, triplum, motetus, tenor)

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21

Choirbook/performance format

manuscript paper was divided into sections based on part in order to take up less space vertically; triplum in left column, motetus in right column, tenor along bottom of page

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22

Rondellus

a work constructed from voice exchange

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23

Rota

canon (different voices singing the same music at different times) at the unison

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24

Philippe de Vitry

  • wrote Ars Nova in 1320

  • credited with developing music theory in the 1300s he was the one who compiled it all together

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25

Mensuration signs

longa = square note with tail breve = square note w/o tail minim = diamond note w/o semiminim = diamond note with tail

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26

Isorhythm

technique in which tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm

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27

Talea

rhythmic pattern of the tenor

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28

Color

melodic pattern of the tenor

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29

Hocket

"pick up," the division of a melody into alternating notes in different voices

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30

Guillaume de Machaut

  • ca. 1300-1377

  • wrote 23 isorhythmic motets and made the isorhythmic motet a standard genre

  • used French and Latin texts in the upper voices

  • most famous composition was Notre Dame Mass

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31

Notre Dame Mass

earliest surviving polyphonic setting of the complete mass ordinary by a single composer whom we know

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32

Trecento

14th century Italian music

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33

Squarcialupi Codex

Most famous book of manuscripts from the trecento period Contains several hundreds of pieces of music from the trecento Most of the music written by a famous composer named Francesco Landini

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34

Madrigal

a form of secular music from the trecento period written with the form AAB

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35

Caccia

Italian for "chase," normally a two part canon where one voice "chases" the other

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36

Ballata

contains a refrain, then 6-7 line stanza, then refrain

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37

Francesco Landini

Blind organist, composer, and poet who composed no sacred music

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38

Landini (under third) cadence

Instead of the top note going up by step and the bottom note going down by step, the bottom note goes down but the top note goes down a step before leaping up to an octave above the bottom note

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39

Haut

high, i.e. loud, brass and woodwinds

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40

Bas

low, i.e. soft, mostly string instruments

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41

Musica ficta

False, feigned music, applying an accidental that lay outside the Guidonian hand

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42

Ars subtilior

the "more subtle" art. An exaggeration of the rhythmic complexity made possible by ars nova notational systems. Complex cross-rhythms, meter changes, partial mensuration signs, different mensurations in each voice.

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43

Virelai

AbbaA

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44

Rondeau

ABaAabAB

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45

Ballade

aab[C]

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