RADT270 - Exam 1

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Which positioning line extends from the EAM to the outer canthus?

a. OML

b. GML

c. AML

d. IOML

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1

Which positioning line extends from the EAM to the outer canthus?

a. OML

b. GML

c. AML

d. IOML

a

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2

Which positioning landmark is located at the base of the nasal spine?

a. Nasion

b. Gonion

c. Glabella

d. Acanthion

d

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3

Which positioning landmark is located at the superior-most point of the nasal bones?

a. Nasion

b. Canthus

c. Glabella

d. Acanthion

a

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4

Which positioning landmark is the smooth elevation that is located between the superciliary arches?

a. Nasion

b. Glabella

c. Acanthion

d. Mental point

b

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5

Which positioning landmark is most superior?

a. Nasion

b. Gonion

c. Glabella

d. Acanthion

c

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6

Where on the skull is the gonion located?

a. between the orbits

b. on the anterior frontal bone

c. on the posterior occipital bone

d. on the lateroposterior part of the mandible

d

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7

Where on the skull is the outer canthus located?

a. between the orbits

b. at the mandibular angle

c. along each parietal eminence

d. on the lateral border of each orbit

d

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8

Which positioning landmark is located at the anterior portion of the mandible?

a. nasion

b. gonion

c. acanthion

d. mental point

d

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9

Which suture articulates the frontal bone with both parietal bones?

a. sagittal

b. coronal

c. squamosal

d. lambdoidal

b

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10

Which suture joins both parietal bones at the vertex of the skull?

a. sagittal

b. coronal

c. squamosal

d. lambdoidal

a

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11

Which suture joins a parietal bone with both a sphenoid bone and a temporal bone?

a. sagittal

b. coronal

c. squamosal

d. lambdoidal

c

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12

Which suture joins both parietal bones with the occipital bone?

a. sagittal

b. coronal

c. squamosal

d. lambdoidal

d

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13

The bregma junction is located at the junction of which two sutures?

a. coronal and sagittal

b. coronal and squamosal

c. lambdoidal and sagittal

d. lambdoidal and squamosal

a

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14

The lambda junction is located at the junction of which two sutures?

a. coronal and sagittal

b. coronal and squamosal

c. lambdoidal and sagittal

d. lambdoidal and squamosal

c

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15

The bregma junction is located at the junction of which cranial bones?

a. frontal and both parietals

b. occipital and both parietals

c. frontal and sphenoid

d. occipital and sphenoid

a

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16

The lambda junction is located at the junction of which cranial bones?

a. frontal and both parietals

b. occipital and both parietals

c. frontal and temporal

d. occipital and temporal

b

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17

Which skull classification refers to a typical skull (in terms of width and length)?

a. mesocephalic

b. brachycephalic

c. dolichocephalic

a

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18

Which skull classification refers to a long, narrow skull?

a. mesocephalic

b. brachycephalic

c. dolichocephalic

c

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19

Which skull classification refers to a short, wide skull?

a. mesocephalic

b. brachycephalic

c. dolichocephalic

b

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20

How many degrees are in the angle formed between the midsagittal plane and the petrous pyramids in the mesocephalic skull?

a. 36 degrees

b. 40 degrees

c. 47 degrees

d. 54 degrees

c

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21

How many degrees are in the angle formed between the midsagittal plane and the petrous pyramids in the brachycephalic skull?

a. 36 degrees

b. 40 degrees

c. 47 degrees

d. 54 degrees

d

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22

How many degrees are in the angle formed between the midsagittal plane and the petrous pyramids in the dolichocephalic skull?

a. 36 degrees

b. 40 degrees

c. 47 degrees

d. 54 degrees

b

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23

On which cranial bone are the superciliary arches located?

a. frontal

b. parietal

c. ethmoid

d. occipital

a

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24

On which cranial bone is the cribriform plate located?

a. frontal

b. ethmoid

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

b

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25

On which cranial bone is the crista galli located?

a. ethmoid

b. occipital

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

a

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26

Which cranial bone has a petrous pyramid?

a. parietal

b. ethmoid

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

c

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27

On which cranial bone is the sella turcica located?

a. parietal

b. ethmoid

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

d

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28

Which cranial bone has the mastoid process?

a. parietal

b. ethmoid

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

c

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29

On which cranial bone is the perpendicular plate located?

a. parietal

b. ethmoid

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

b

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30

Which cranial bone has both greater and lesser wings?

a. ethmoid

b. occipital

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

d

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31

With which cranial bone does the first cervical vertebra articulate?

a. ethmoid

b. occipital

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

b

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32

The pterygoid processes project inferiorly from which cranial bone?

a. frontal

b. ethmoid

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

d

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33

The foramen magnum is a part of which cranial bone?

a. frontal

b. occipital

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

b

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34

From which cranial bone does the zygomatic process arise?

a. frontal

b. parietal

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

c

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35

The EAM is a part of which cranial bone?

a. frontal

b. parietal

c. temporal

d. sphenoid

c

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36

The temporal process projects posteriorly from which facial bone?

a. vomer

b. maxilla

c. zygomatic

d. temporal

c

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37

Which bones compose the bridge of the nose?

a. nasal

b. lacrimal

c. palatine

d. maxillae

a

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38

With which bone does the mandible articulate?

a. hyoid

b. maxilla

c. zygoma

d. temporal

d

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39

Where are the lacrimal bones located?

a. inside the nasal cavity

b. on the lateral wall of each orbit

c. on the medial wall of each orbit

d. inferior to the maxillary sinuses

c

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40

Where is the vomer bone found?

a. posterior to the nasal bones

b. on the floor of the nasal cavity

c. on the lateral wall of the orbits

d. in the posterior ¼ of the roof of the mouth

b

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41

Which bone comprises most of the lateral walls of the orbital cavities?

a. maxilla

b. lacrimal

c. palatine

d. zygomatic

d

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42

Which term refers to the anterior process of the mandible?

a. cornu

b. condyle

c. coracoid

d. coronoid

d

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43

Which term refers to the posterior process of the mandibular ramus?

a. cornu

b. condyle

c. coracoid

d. coronoid

b

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44

Which facial bones have alveolar processes?

a. vomer and mandible

b. vomer and zygomatic

c. maxillae and mandible

d. maxillae and zygomatic

c

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45

Which bones form the posterior ¼ of the roof of the mouth?

a. maxillae

b. palatine

c. zygomatic

d. inferior nasal conchae

b

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46

Which positioning landmark is located on the maxillae?

a. gonion

b. nasion

c. acanthi

d. mental point

c

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47

Which two positioning lines or planes should be perpendicular to the IR for the PA projection of the skull?

a. OML and midsagittal plane

b. OML and interpupillary line

c. IOML and midsagittal plane

d. IOML and interpupillary line

a

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48

With reference to the patient, where should the IR be centered for the PA projection of the skull?

a. nasion

b. glabella

c. acanthion

d. mental point

a

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49

With reference to the patient, where should the IR be centered for the lateral projection of the skull?

a. nasion

b. EAM

c. 2 inches (5cm) above the EAM

d. 2 inches (5cm) below the EAM

c

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50

With reference to the IR, how should the interpupillary line and the midsagittal plane be positioned for the lateral projection of the skull?

a. IP line: parallel, MSP: parallel

b. IP line: parallel, MSP: perpendicular

c. IP line: perpendicular, MSP: parallel

d. IP line: perpendicular, MSP: perpendicular

c

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51

For the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull, how many degrees and in which direction should the central ray be directed when the OML is perpendicular to the IR?

a. 30 degrees caudad

b. 30 degrees cephalad

c. 37 degrees caudad

d. 37 degrees cephalad

a

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52

For the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull, how many degrees and in which direction should the central ray be directed when the IOML is perpendicular to the IR?

a. 30 degrees caudad

b. 30 degrees cephalad

c. 37 degrees caudad

d. 37 degrees cephalad

c

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53

Which positioning line should be parallel with the IR for the SMV projection of the skull?

a. OML

b. glabellomeatal line

c. acanthiomeatal line

d. IOML

d

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54

Which projection of the skull can be correctly performed with the central ray angled 37 degrees?

a. AP axial, Towne method

b. PA axial, Haas method

c. PA axial, Caldwell method

d. SMV, Schuller method

a

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55

Which projection of the skull can be correctly performed with the central ray angled 15 degrees?

a. SMV, Schuller method

b. AP axial, Towne method

c. PA axial, Haas method

d. PA axial, Caldwell method

d

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56

Which projection of the skull produces a full basal image of the cranium?

a. lateral

b. AP axial, Towne method

c. PA with perpendicular central ray

d. SMV, Schuller method

d

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57

Which projection of the skull projects the petrous bones in the lower 1/3 of the orbits?

a. PA axial, Haas method

b. AP axial, Towne method

c. PA axial, Caldwell method

d. PA with perpendicular central ray

c

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58

Which projection of the skull should be obtained when the frontal bone is of primary interest?

a. PA axial, Haas method

b. AP axial, Towne method

c. PA axial, Caldwell method

d. PA with perpendicular central ray

d

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59

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial projection, Towne method, of the skull?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the mental protuberance should superimpose the anterior frontal bone

c. the right TMJ should be superimposed over the left TMJ

d. the distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral margins of foramen magnum should be the same on both sides

d

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60

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the PA projection of the skull?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the mental protuberance should superimpose the anterior frontal bone

c. part of the sella turcica should be seen within the foramen magnum

d. the distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral margins of foramen magnum should be the same on both sides

d

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61

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the lateral projection of the skull?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the mental protuberance should superimpose the anterior frontal bone

c. part of the sella turcica should be seen within the foramen magnum

d. the distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral margins of foramen magnum should be the same on both sides

a

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62

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the SMV projection of the skull?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the mental protuberance should superimpose the anterior frontal bone

c. part of the sella turcica should be seen within the foramen magnum

d. the distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral margins of foramen magnum should be the same on both sides

b

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63

For the PA axial projection, Haas method, of the skull, where should the central ray enter the patient’s head?

a. nasion

b. acanthion

c. 1.5 in. (3.8cm) above the external occipital protuberance

d. 1.5 in. (3.8cm) below the external occipital protuberance

d

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64

How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the PA axial projection, Haas method, of the skull?

a. 15 degrees caudad

b. 15 degrees cephalad

c. 25 degrees caudad

d. 25 degrees cephalad

d

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65

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the PA axial, Haas method, of the skull?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the petrous ridges should be demonstrated in the lower 1/3 of the orbits

c. the dorsum sella and posterior clinoids should be projected within the foramen magnum

d. the mental protuberance should superimpose the anterior frontal bone

c

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66

With reference to the patient, where should the central ray be directed for the lateral projection of the facial bones?

a. zygomatic bone

b. nasal bones

c. outer canthus

d. ¾ in. (1.9cm) anterior and ¾ in. (1.9 cm) superior to EAM

a

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67

With reference to the IR, how should the central ray be directed for the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method, of the facial bones?

a. perpendicular

b. 15 degrees caudad

c. 23 degrees caudad

d. 37 degrees caudad

a

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68

Where should the petrous ridges be seen in the image of the parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones?

a. superior to the orbits

b. lower 1/3 of the orbits

c. through the maxillary sinuses

d. below the maxillary sinuses

d

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69

Which positioning line and angle indicate correct positioning of the head for the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?

a. OML; 37 degrees to the IR

b. OML; perpendicular to the IR

c. IOML; 37 degrees to the IR

d. IOML; perpendicular to the IR

a

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70

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method of the facial bones?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the petrous ridges should be projected within the orbits

c. the zygomatic arches should be free from overlying structures

d. distances from the lateral border of the skull and orbits equal on each side

d

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71

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the PA axial projection, Caldwell method?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the zygomatic arches should be superimposed

c. the petrous ridges should be projected within the orbits

d. distances from the lateral border of the skull and orbits equal on each side

d

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72

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the lateral projection of the facial bones?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the petrous ridges should be projected within the orbits

c. the zygomatic arches should be free from overlying structures

d. the petrous ridges should be projected immediately below the maxillary sinuses

a

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73

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the SMV projection for bilateral zygomatic arches?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the zygomatic arches should be superimposed

c. the petrous ridges should be projected within the orbits

d. the zygomatic arches should be free from overlying structures

d

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74

An AP axial projection (modified Towne method) of the bilateral zygomatic arches produces an image similar to the AP axial projection (Towne method) of the skull. How many degrees and in what direction should the central ray be directed for this projection to demonstrate zygomatic arches when the OML is perpendicular to the IR?

a. 30 degrees caudad

b. 30 degrees cephalad

c. 37 degrees caudad

d. 37 degrees cephalad

a

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75

An AP axial projection (modified Towne method) of the bilateral zygomatic arches is performed similarly to the AP axial projection (Towne method) of the skull except that the projection for the zygomatic arches requires that which of the following be done?

a. CR should be directed cephalically

b. CR should be directed to the glabella

c. the OML forms an angle of 37 degrees with the IR

d. the midsagittal plane forms an angle of 45 degrees with the IR

b

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76

With reference to the IR, how should the MSP be adjusted for the tangential projection demonstrating an individual zygomatic arch?

a. parallel with the IR

b. 15 degrees from perpendicular

c. 37 degrees to the IR

d. 53 degrees to the IR

b

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77

To demonstrate the mandibular body with the axiolateral oblique projection, how should the patient’s head by positioned?

a. keep the head in a true lateral position

b. from true lateral, rotate the head 15 degrees toward the IR

c. from true lateral, rotate the head 30 degrees toward the IR

d. from true lateral, rotate the head 45 degrees toward the IR

c

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78

How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the axiolateral projection of the mandible?

a. 15 degrees caudad

b. 15 degrees cephalad

c. 25 degrees cauad

d. 25 degrees cephalad

d

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79

Which projection is performed with the patient’s head positioned true lateral and the CR directed 25 degrees cephalad?

a. axiolateral oblique projection of the TMJ's

b. axiolateral projection of the mandible

c. parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones

d. tangential projection of the bilateral zygomatic arches

b

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80

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the axiolateral oblique projection of the mandible?

a. the mandibular rami should be superimposed

b. the opposite side of the mandible should not overlap the ramus

c. the mandibular condyles should be anterior to the petrous ridges

d. the mental protuberance should superimpose anterior frontal bone

b

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81

Which structure is of primary interest when the patient’s head is rotated 15 degrees toward the IR from a true lateral position and the CR is directed 15 degrees caudad, entering about 1.5 in. (3.8cm) superior to the upside EAM?

a. orbit

b. mandible

c. zygomatic arch

d. TMJ

d

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82

Which of the following structures can be well demonstrated with an axiolateral oblique projection?

a. facial bones

b. zygomatic arches

c. maxillary sinuses

d. TMJs

d

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83

How many degrees and in which direction should the central ray be directed for the axiolateral oblique projection for the TMJs

a. 15 degrees caudad

b. 15 degrees cephalad

c. 25 degrees caudad

d. 25 degrees cephalad

a

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84

For the AP axial projection of the TMJs, where should the central ray be directed?

a. nasion

b. glabella

c. acanthion

d. 3 in. (7.6cm) above the nasion

d

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85

With reference to the patient, where should the IR be centered for the axiolateral oblique projection of the TMJs?

a. to the glabella

b. ½ in. (1.2cm) anterior to the EAM closest to IR

c. 1 in, (2.5cm) posterior to the EAM closest to IR

d. 2 in. (5cm) above the EAM closest to IR

b

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86

Which structures should always be imaged with the patient in an upright position?

a. orbits

b. mastoids

c. zygomatic arches

d. paranasal sinuses

d

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87

Which of the following is the only projection for paranasal sinuses that adequately demonstrates all 4 sinus groups?

a. lateral

b. SMV

c. PA axial, Caldwell method

d. parietoacanthial, Waters method

a

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88

With reference to the outer canthus, where should the CR be directed for the lateral projections of the sinus?

a. inferior

b. superior

c. anterior

d. posterior

d

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89

Which sinus group is of primary importance in the lateral projection of the sinuses?

a. frontal

b. maxillary

c. ethmoidal

d. sphenoidal

d

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90

Which sinus groups are best demonstrated with the PA axial projection, Caldwell method?

a. frontal and sphenoidal

b. frontal and anterior ethmoidal

c. maxillary and sphenoidal

d. maxillary and anterior ethmoidal

b

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91

For the PA axial projection, Caldwell method, of the sinuses, which positioning line, in addition to the midsagittal plane, should be perpendicular to the IR?

a. OML

b. interpupillary

c. GML

d. IOML

a

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92

Where should the petrous ridges be seen in the image of the PA axial projection, Caldwell method, of the sinuses?

a. superior to the orbits

b. lower 1/3 of the orbits

c. through the maxillary sinuses

d. below the maxillary sinuses

b

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93

What positioning line should form an angle of 37 degrees with the IR for the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?

a. OML

b. GML

c. AML

d. IOML

a

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94

At what level should the IR be centered for the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?

a. acanthion

b. nasion

c. glabella

d. mental point

a

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95

Which paranasal sinus group is best demonstrated with the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?

a. frontal

b. maxillary

c. ethmoidal

d. sphenoidal

b

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96

Which evaluation criterion pertains to the AP axial, Towne method of the skull?

a. the orbital roofs should be superimposed

b. the mental protuberance should superimpose the anterior frontal bone

c. petrous ridges lie immediately inferior to the maxillary sinuses

d. dorsum sellae and posterior clinoid processes within the foramen magnum

d

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97

Where should the CR exit the head for the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?

a. nasion

b. glabella

c. acanthion

d. mental point

c

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98

Which sinus group is NOT well demonstrated in the image produced by the parietoacanthial projection, Waters method?

a. frontal

b. maxillary

c. ethmoidal

d. sphenoidal

d

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99

Which 2 paranasal sinus groups are better demonstrated than the other sinuses with the SMV projection?

a. frontal and maxillary

b. frontal and sphenoidal

c. ethmoidal and maxillary

d. ethmoidal and sphenoidal

d

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100

Which projection of the sinuses demonstrates a symmetric image of the anterior portion of the base of the skull?

a. lateral

b. SMV

c. PA axial, Caldwell method

d. parietoacanthial, Waters method

b

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