Notion of Play & Language

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1

Play

is fun, voluntary, imaginative, and spontaneous yet sometimes bound by rules

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Play

, as defined by the Philippine Play Coalition, is any enjoyable and stimulating activity in various settings which contribute to the development of the physical, mental, social, and educational aspects of children's lives

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main vocation

Def of Play: Play is a child's __ ___: brought back to our childhood, because this is what we do at this stage,

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universal language

Def of Play: Play is the ___ ___ of childhood: understand others and make sense of the world, express through play

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concepts and understanding

Def of Play: A child's play reflects his/her ___ __ ___ of the world, most natural context for learning even language

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neuroplasticity

children are fastest in learning because of ___, because of observing so we provide opportunity for learning

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playing and learning

Importance of play: "For a small child, there is no division between ___ ___ ___ between the things he or she does 'just for fun' and things that are 'educational'. This child learns while living and any part of living that is enjoyable is also play." - Penelope Leach

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Social skills and developing relationships

Through PLAY, children learn: To take turns, To negotiate, collaborate, cooperate, To see things from another person's point of view

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Listening skills and following directions

Through PLAY, children learn: ex: shoot ball, learning basketball

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unconsciously talk when we play

Through PLAY, children learn: New vocabulary and new concepts

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Healthy love of learning

Through PLAY, children learn: ; engaging in self-directed exploration

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Connecting, expressing & understanding their own and others' feelings and thoughts

(1) Play allows:

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Practice of newly acquired skills in a safe and supportive environment

(2) Play allows:

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Managing toxic stress and build resilience by developing executive functioning skills (e.g. prob solving)

(3) Play allows:

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Jean Piaget

author of cognitive stages of play

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Mildred Parten

author of social stages of play

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FUNCTIONAL PLAY

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Child engages in sensory and motor exploration of toys, materials, and people in exploration of toys, materials, and people in order to learn about them, limited but begin exploring and becomes purposive actions, E.g. Banging high chair, Splashing water at bath time, Mouthing blocks

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Pleasure of being the cause

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Functional Play: → Baby finds enjoyment in bodily movements

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repeated activity;

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Functional Play: No one teaches children to do functional play, they simply learn it through ___ __ these repeated actions provide stimulation and information for infants

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EXPLORATORY PLAY

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Functional Play: Another way Theorists label this stage..

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Sensorimotor play

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Functional Play: Exploratory Play: children engage in activities through manipulation of body or objects in order to explore their sensory characteristics (e.g. mouthing block, shaking a rattle, banging a toy)

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Functional play

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Functional Play: Exploratory Play: toys according to children begin to use their functional purpose (e.g. cause and effect toys; if I push the button, the music will play, squeezing rubber ducky)

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CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY

(added by dr. Sarah Melanski), Child manipulates objects in order to create something, , Involves using developing skills, creativity, and cognitive processing to create temporary structures from different elements, Children make use of objects (blocks, legos, sand, clay, etc.) in an organized, goal-oriented way to make or build something

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CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): E.g. Turning play doh into a car or a beach scene, Building a gun from Legos, Building a fort or playhouse

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SYMBOLIC PLAY

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): AKA pretend play, dramatic play, fantasy play, role-playing, make believe, Child pretends to be other than what they are and use actions, objects, or words to represent things or situations,

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Imagination

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Symbolic Play: ___ takes over, play is rich in symbolism

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Imagination

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): E.g. Grocery shopping, Going to the doctor, Stick as a horse or a magic wand

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Sociodramatic play

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Symbolic Play: most highly developed form of symbolic play

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Imitative role play

Sociodramatic Play: Criteria (Smilansky): The child undertakes a make-believe role and expresses it in an imitative action and/or verbalization. Example: "I am the teacher, and you are my students."

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Make-believe with regard to objects

Sociodramatic Play: Criteria (Smilansky): Actions or verbal descriptions and/or materials or toys that are not replicas of the object itself are substituted for real objects. Example: "I am riding my pony" when the child is sitting on a barrel

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Verbal make-believe with regard to actions and situations

Sociodramatic Play: Criteria (Smilansky): Verbal dialog takes the place of body movements. Example: "Let's pretend I cooked the dinner, and now I am setting the table" when only the last activity is actually imitated

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Persistence in role play

Sociodramatic Play: Criteria (Smilansky): The pretend play episode lasts for at least 10 minutes.

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Interaction

Sociodramatic Play: Criteria (Smilansky): At least two players interact within the context of a play episode.

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Verbal communication

Sociodramatic Play: Criteria (Smilansky): There is some verbal interaction with others related to the episode.

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GAMES WITH RULES

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): Child recognizes and follows rules that conform to the expectations and goals of the game in order to sustain play

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GAMES WITH RULES

Cognitive Taxonomy (Piaget): E.g. Board games, Langit-Lupa, Clap games, ice ice water

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social

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): as children go older when improving communication skills and provide more opportunities with communication with other children, their solitary play will become more ___

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0-3 mos

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Age: Unoccupied Play

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Unoccupied Play

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Baby makes a lot of movements with their hands, feet, arms etc. in an attempt to learn about and move within their environment, Discovering how their body moves, Initial form of playing, everything is new & are understanding the world around them

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0-2 years

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): age: Solitary Play

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Solitary Play

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): child plays alone; not interested in playing with others quite yet, Have not yet learned enough from relationships, They explore, create, concentrate, think of themselves, regulate emotions, Busy in exploring and discovering their new world

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2 - 2 1/2 years

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Age: Onlooker Play

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Onlooker Play

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Child begins to watch other children playing but does not play with them, Spectator play, Nagppique na interest niya and nag-oobserve na siya ng ibang bata, A child will be close to other children but di pa siya ready to join, They may ask questions or give suggestions but

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walang effort to join sa play, (madalas sabay nag-eemerge with solitary play)

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2 1/2 - 3 years

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Age: Parallel Play

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Parallel Play

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): children sit near or beside each other while playing with similar objects - without interacting, Important first step in learning how to interact with others, Kids these age are keeping an eye on and listening to each other, They like being part of the group but are still egocentric

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3-4 years

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Age: Associative Play

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Associative Play

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Child engages in separate activity but with the assistance and cooperation of others, Children interact with other children by giving, taking and sharing play materials, but each child acts alone, They begin talking & sharing toys but each child acts alone, No group interactions & definite goal

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4 years and up

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Age: Cooperative Play

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Cooperative Play

SOCIAL TAXONOMY (Mildred Parten): Child plays together with others & has interest in both the activity and other children involved, Children share a common activity and work together to achieve a common goal, Engaging in dramatic play, They begin to understand na they need permission to play with certain materials and certain people, They are willing to share their toys for the play

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interpret the world, cognitive processes

How are PLAY and LANGUAGE related? first year of life, we have prelinguistic elements, babies have receptive language already, play skills provide how __ __ __ around them and ___ __

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similar path

Play and language develop along a __ __: as language complexes, the play also develops, When there is delay in one component, there is also a delay in another

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play

children learn language through ___. Children learn language best in a meaningful and interactive context

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concrete experience & the abstract thought

Play bridges the gap between the

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future oriented and abstract

Play as the bridge: babies live in the present (concrete), the now and here. But many of the experiences in the adult world are

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abstract

language is

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representational characteristic

play and linguistic communication share a ___ ____, provide opportunity to practice symbolic relationships,

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symbolic play

is a prerequisite for language learning

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reality

before you can use language, child should represent ___ with symbols

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mental imagery, representational, and thinking skills

"To develop language for meaningful communication, children must have _________" (Westby, 1980)

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reality with symbols

"Children must be able to represent ____ __ ___. Play skills must develop to a certain level before the corresponding language skills are possible" (Westby & White, 2014)

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mental representation

mas malayo ang istura object = mas mataas ang level of __ ___.

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communicate

child who does not know how to play is unlikely to learn to ___ about objects in the correct manner,

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meaning

children need to find ___ in everyday interactions, ex: mouthing, banging, throwing, child won't bother to explore

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sensorimotor play

___ ___is important but it shouldn't stop there, those with delays may get stuck in this stage picture:

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ToM, decontextualization, thematic understanding, organization/integration

At the macro-structure level, mental modeling requires _,_ (creating the mental model), __, _. All of these dimensions are also found in play (Westby, 2000)

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(1 1/2 - 6 yrs)

age: DEVELOPMENT OF SYMBOLISM

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Decentration (Theory of Mind)

development of symbolism: ______: moving from self as agent to other as agent, Involves the awareness of one's own thoughts and feelings (intrapersonal cognitive and affective ToM), The thoughts and feelings of others (interpersonal cognitive and affective ToM)

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4

development of symbolism: Decentration: Why ToM is important in language development: Around the age of __, ToM develops and plays a role in the social world (understanding how people think and how we can communicate with them). interact as it is alive and talking back at them, not self-centered anymore, eventually includes people

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Decontextualization

development of symbolism: moving away from using realistic objects, substituting other objects, uses physical

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propsm, as their play develops, they become less dependent of actual real objects, High mental representation capacity

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Integration

development of symbolism: combining pretend acts to form sequences, become more organized, As it evolves, they begin to produce lengthy sequencing of events, Multi-schemed actions

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THEORY OF MIND

child's ability to tune in other people's povs, child tend to be egocentric, and as they develop this lessens

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Action Figures

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Theme vehicles, weapons

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Arts & Crafts

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Chalk, paint, clay, yarn, paper

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Constructive Toys

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Blocks, building sets, interlocking discs

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Costume & Dress-Up

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Halloween costumes, nail art, props

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Dolls & Plush

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Doll houses & accessories, baby doll, puppets

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Educational toys

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: electronics, maps & globes, science toys

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Exploratory Toys

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Bubbles, rattles, cause-effect toys

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Board & Card Games

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Chess, candyland, snakes & ladder

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Maniuplative Toys

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Puzzles, peg boards, sorting toys

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Musical Toys & Activities

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Singing nursery rhymes, dancing, musical instruments

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Physical & Sports Toys

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Skateboards, scooters, balls, sports equipment

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Role Play Toys

Cooking,COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: gardening, doctor, laundry

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Vehicle Toys & Ride-Ons

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Aircraft, boats, cars, trains, trucks

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Literacy Toys & Activities

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Pop-up books, story cubes, alphabet blocks

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Outdoor Toys & Activities

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Kites, water toys, play ground sets, sand box

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Social Games

COMMON TYPES & ACTIVITIES: Follow the leader, hide and seek, charades

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(6-12 mos)

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Age: Activity Board

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Activity Board

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Age (6-12 mos): Infants are fascinated with movement, sounds, visuals (sensorimotor exploration), Pre-linguistic skills (e.g. Cause-Effect, Joint attention, attention-grabbing)

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Pop-up toys, Rattles, Busy boxes

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Other toys: (6-12 mos)

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(1-1 1/2 yrs)

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Age: Shape Sorter

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Shape Sorter

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: problem solving skills, Take an action to make it happen, Experiment with size, shape, and space

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Nesting cups, Simple puzzles, Pegboards, Simple take apart toys

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Other toys: (1-1 1/2 yrs)

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(1 1⁄- 2 yrs)

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Age: Cooking Set

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Cooking Set

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Pretend play & Symbolic capacity, Starts with: familiar everyday activities, Starts with: self as agent

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(1 1/2 - 2 yrs)

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Age: Mr. Potato Head

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Mr. Potato Head

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Vocabulary Building, 2-word utterances, Body parts, objects for dressing, teach prepositions "hat on top" adjectives "red mouth" and actions "walk mr. potato head" combine sa cooking set "eat mr potato head" "wash mr potato head", Pretend Play

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Dress-up, Dolls, Toy cars

AGE-APPROPRIATE TOYS: Other toys: (1 1/2 - 2 yrs)

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