bio- exam 2

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109 Terms

1

macromolecules

huge compared to atoms, play an important role in life

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2

four classes of macromolecules

  • carbohydrates

  • lipids

  • proteins

  • nucleic acids

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how are macromolecules made

carbs, proteins, nucleic acids made from combining small pieces into larger pieces

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monomers

small pieces that make up carbs, proteins, nucleic acids

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polymers

repeated pieces of monomers

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how are polymers built

chemical reactions are used to build the bonds between monomers to form polymers

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dehydration

  • used to join monomers and build polymers

  • remove a water molecule from monomers

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hydrolysis

  • used to break down polymers

  • split water molecules

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nucleic acids

macromolecules that store info and play key roles in evolution and life

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10

where is DNA stored

  • nucleus in eukaryotic cells

    • nucleoid in prokaryotic cells

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11

where can RNA be found in eukaryotes

both inside and outside the nucleus

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12

what are nucleic acids made of

polymers made of monomers called nucleotides

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13

what are nucleotides made of

  • 5 carbon sugar (pentose)

  • nitrogen- containing base (nitrogenous base)

  • 1 to 3 phosphate groups

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14

sugar in DNA

deoxyribose

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15

sugar in RNA

ribose

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purines

nitrogenous bases with 2 carbon rings

  • adenine and guanine in both

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pyrimidines

nitrogenous bases with 1 carbon ring

  • cytosine and thymine in DNA

    • cytosine and uracil in RNA

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phosphodiester bond

chemical bond that holds together nucleotides

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19

how do DNA strands run

antiparallel

  • ex. two land road

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is RNA double or single stranded

can be found as both

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type of RNA that forms many secondary structures/ loops

Ribosomal RNA

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22

type of RNA that forms some secondary structures

tRNA

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can RNA self replicate

yes

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RNA world hypothesis

  • RNA can store info and act like an enzyme

  • capable of self- replication

    • these traits of RNA are used to support RNA as the first genetic material

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where can DNA be found in our cells

  • nucleus

  • mitochondria

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26

Frederick Griffith

  • 2 strains of pneumonia, tested to kill mice

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Oswald Avery

treated bacteria with different enzymes, mixed material together

(expanded on Griffith’s experiment)

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transformation

griffith and avery proved that DNA is the material that was able to transform the virus

(occurs when bacteria or other organisms incorporate foreign DNA into their cells)

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29

martha chase and alfred hershey

  • worked with bacteriophages

    • viruses of bacteria

  • phage T2, knew it had both DNA and proteins (capsid)

  • infected bacteria to produce more viruses

  • infected E. Coli w diff groups of T2

  • found that protein stayed with the phage and DNA entered the cells

  • DNA was transmitted to E. Coli and was responsible for making new phages, not proteins

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Edwin Chargaff’s Rules

  • % A = % T, % C = % G

  • DNA base composition varies between species

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Rosalind Franklin

  • died from complication w ovarian cancer bc of how much radiation she worked with

  • her work was critical to understand the structure of DNA

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Watson and Crick’s Double Helix

  • nitrogenous bases on the inside

  • sugar (deoxyribose) connected to them

  • phosphate groups on the backbone

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building block for DNA

nucleotides

  • includes nitrogenous base, sugar, phosphate group

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nucleosides

nitrogenous base and sugar found in nucleotides

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semiconservative model of DNA replication

each daughter DNA strand has one copy of the parental DNA strand

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conservative model DNA replication

two parental strands come apart, serve as a template, and then rejoin

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dispersive model DNA replication

each strand contains DNA from parents and daughter molecules

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Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl

  • grew e coli containing heavy isotope nitrogen

  • transferred to a lighter isotope and separated by mass

  • second replication was separated into one more dense and one less dense group, supported the semiconservative replication

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39

where does DNA replication start

origins of replication

(where two DNA strands pull apart from each other)

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40

replication fork

Y-shaped area at each end where replication takes place

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41

how does replication move

in both directions

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42

what does the origins of replication form

replication bubble

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replication bubble

enzyme called helicase unwinds the double stranded DNA at each replication fork

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44

topoisomerase

relieves pressure on DNA ahead of the fork by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining strands

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binds to the single DNA strands inside the replication bubble and keeps them from rejoining

single stranded binding proteins

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begins replication

primase makes an RNA primer

  • adds RNA nucleotides one at a time 5’ to 3’ direction

  • only 5-10 nucleotides long

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adds new nucleotides once RNA primer is in place

DNA polymerase III

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deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs)

new nucleotides in the form of ATP, GTP, TTP, and CTP

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DNA polymerase

  • sliding clamp goes around DNA strand and holds in place

  • grips strand and adds dNTPs

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combines new nucleotides to the RNA primer or other nucleotides

dehydration reaction

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what end are new nucleotides always added to

3’ end

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replicated continuously, needs only 1 RNA primer

leading strand

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composed of several fragments each started from its own RNA primer

lagging strand

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okazaki fragment

fragments that compose the lagging strand

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removes the RNA nucleotides and replaces them with DNA

DNA polymerase I

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glues the okazaki fragments together

DNA ligase

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catalyzes the breaking of hydrogen bonds between base pairs to open the double helix

helicase

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stabilizes single-stranded DNA

single-strand DNA-binding proteins

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breaks and rejoins the DNA double helix to relieve twisting forces caused by the opening of the helix

topoisomerase

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catalyzes the synthesis of the RNA primer

primase

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extends the leading strand

DNA polymerase III

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holds DNA polymerase in place during strand extension

sliding clamp

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catalyzes the synthesis of the RNA primer on an okazaki fragment

primase

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extends an okazaki fragment

DNA polymerase III

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holds DNA polymerase in place during strand extension

sliding clamp

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removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA

DNA polymerase I

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catalyzes the joining of Okazaki fragments into a continuous strand

DNA ligase

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68

proofread newly made DNA

DNA polymerases

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mismatch repair of DNA

repair enzymes correct errors in base pairing

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nuclease cuts out and replaces damaged stretches of DNA

nucleotide excision repair

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error rate after proofreading

low, but not zero

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create problems for the linear DNA of eukaryotic chromosomes

limitations of DNA polymerase

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telomeres

special nucleotide sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules that postpone the erosion of genes near the ends of DNA molecules

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special enzyme that adds bases to the end of linear chromosomes

telomerase

  • corresponds to the DNA bases

    • has its own RNA molecule

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where is telomerase often found in humans

cells that produce gametes

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PCR

polymerase chain reaction

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denaturation (PCR)

separates two strands of DNA

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annealing (PCR)

attaches primers to DNA

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extension (PCR)

synthesizes complementary DNA strand from dNTPs, starting at primer

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80

an unusual, heat-stable DNA polymerase that is key to PCR

Taq polymerase

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81

eukaryotic genomes short DNA sequences

short tandem repeats, cary in repeat numbers among individuals

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82

Beadle and Tatum

  • bread mold, used x-ray to cause cells to mutate

  • ended up with several mutants that could not survive on minimal media and needed additional amino acids

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Srb and Horowitz

  • determined the biochemical pathway of arginine synthesis in N. Crassa and found 3 classes of mutants

  • determined that each class of mutant carried out one step in the metabolic pathway

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84

one gene- one enzyme hypothesis

  • some genes encode for nonenzyme proteins

  • some genes encode for a subunit of a protein

  • some genes encode functional RNA molecules

    • tRNA, rRNA, microRNAs

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85

occurs in the nucleus and produces mRNA

transcription

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occurs in ribosomes and makes a polypeptide chain

translation

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two main parts of the process of going from DNA to a protein

transcription and translation

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DNA to RNA to proteins

central dogma

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89

each of these encodes for one amino acid

codon

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DNA triplet code on the nontemplate strand

codons

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stop codons

UAA, UGA, UAG

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start codon

AUG

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first amino acid for every polypeptide chain

AUG

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changes in the genetic information of a cell

mutations

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95

changes in just one nucleotide pair of a gene

point mutations

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96

can lead to the production of an abnormal protein

change of a single nucleotide in a DNA template strand

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single nucleotide-pair substitutions

replace one nucleotide with another

(point mutation)

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3rd codon position

wobble position

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missense mutations

still code for an amino acid, but not the correct one

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change an amino acid into a stop codon and usually leads to a nonfunctional protein

nonsense mutations

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