Pathophysiology and Disease Processes

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Diabetes mellitus (Type 1)

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Diabetes mellitus (Type 1)

Causes: Unknown, autoimmune, genetic, or environment. Conditions: Polyuria, Polydipsia, Fatigue, Blurry Vision, Weight Loss, Increase in Blood glucose, Treatments: Insulin Therapy

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Diabetes mellitus (Type 2)

Causes: Obesity, Inactive, Genetic Conditions: Polyuria, Polydipsia, Fatigue, Increase in Blood glucose Treatments:Diet, Exercise, Insulin, Medication

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3

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Causes: Unknown (possibly genetic, excessive insulin) Conditions: Irregular menstrual cycles, Elevated hormone levels, Multiple cysts on ovaries Treatments: Weight loss, Estrogen and progestin

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4

Hypothyroidism

Causes: Autoimmune disease, Medications, Thyroid surgery Conditions: Fatigue, Weight gain, Muscle aches, Bradycardia, Depression, Elevated cholesterol, Dry skin Treatments: Synthetic thyroid hormone medication (levothyroxine)

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Hyperthyroidism

Causes: Graves disease, Thyroiditis, Plummer's disease Conditions: Weight loss, Tachycardia, Anxiety, Fatigue, Sleep disruption, Goiter Treatments: Radioactive iodine, Antithyroid medication, Beta blockers, Thyroidectomy

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Basal Cell Carcinoma (BBC)

Causes: Light/fair skin, Sun exposure Conditions: New growth or sore that does not heal Treatments: Curettage and electrodessication, Mohs surgery, Cryosurgery, Laser therapy

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Causes: Light/fair skin, Sun exposure, Less common than BCC Conditions: Spreads to surrounding tissue, Most common on face and head Treatments: Curettage and electrodessication, Mohs surgery, Cryosurgery, Laser therapy

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8

Malignant Melanoma

Causes: Light/fair skin, Sun exposure Conditions: Itchy/bleeding mole, New mole, Mole with changes Treatments: Depends on stage of lesion, Surgery, Lymph node biopsy, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Immunotherapy

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9

Acne vulgaris

Causes: Surge of sex hormones during puberty, Excess sebum on skin surface Conditions: Black heads, white heads (comedos), Papules, pustules Treatments: Regular cleansing of affected area, OTC benzoyl peroxide products, Prescription medication (topical or oral)

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10

Alopecia

Causes: Often hereditary, Hormone changes, Chemotherapy, Stress, Burns, Fungal skin infections Conditions: Loss or lack of hair anywhere on the body, typically on the scalp, Can include eyebrows and eyelashes Treatments: No cure, Hair transplants and medications can slow progression

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Cellulitis

Causes: Staphylococcal and streptococcal bacterial infections Conditions: Red, tight skin, Pain in inflamed area, Fever Treatments: Oral/topical antibiotics, Hospitalization if at risk for developing systemic infection

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Dermatitis

Causes: Multiple causative agents, Contact with irritants Conditions: Inflammation of skin resulting in rash and pruritus Treatments: Treatment is based on cause, Corticosteroid creams, Oral steroids

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Eczema

Causes: Unknown (possible allergy or inflammatory condition) Conditions: Chronic dermatitis with vesicular eruptions developing into itchy, red, scaly rash Treatments: Topical or systemic steroids, NSAIDs for discomfort

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Folliculitis

Causes: Shaving or repeated rubbing of shaved area, Bacteria or fungi Conditions: Red, itchy hair follicles (pimple appearance) Treatments: Regular cleansing of affected area, Topical antibiotics, Electric shaver instead of razor

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15

Herpes simplex

Causes: Contact with herpes simplex virus Conditions: Type I: painful blisters on lips, mouth, and face Type II: similar lesions, located in genital area Treatments: No cure, Antiviral medication to decrease frequency of outbreaks

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16

Impetigo

Causes: Staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria Conditions: Itchy, oozing skin lesions with honey-like appearing crust Treatments: Antibiotics, Frequent cleansing of area

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Pediculosis

Causes: Parasitic lice infestation Conditions: Skin itching, Nits (eggs) in hair, particularly near roots Treatments: Prescription or OTC lice treatments/shampoos

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18

Psoriasis

Causes: Inherited autoimmune disorder Conditions: Silvery, scaly, severely itchy skin lesions, Can cause systemic symptoms such as joint pain and inflammation (psoriatic arthritis) Treatments: Oral NSAIDs, Topical creams containing vitamins A and D, Hydrocortisone cream, UV treatments

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Ringworm

Causes: Contact with causative fungus Conditions: Flat, circular lesions (dry/scaly or moist/crusty) Treatments: Topical and oral antifungal medication

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20

Rosacea

Causes: Dilation of small facial blood vessels, Cause of dilation is unknown Conditions: Redness, Acne-like eruptions on face Treatments: Topical cortisones, Antibiotics, Vascular laser therapy

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Osteoarthritis

Causes: Inflammatory processes, Metabolic disorders Conditions: Joint stiffness and pain, Fluid surrounding the joint, Grating sound with joint movement Treatments: NSAIDs, Intra-articular injections, Arthroscopy, Joint replacement surgery

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Causes: Autoimmune Conditions: Destruction of the joint capsule causing scar tissue to form, Visible joint deformity, Loss of joint mobility Treatments: NSAIDs, Exercise, Heat and cold therapies, Cortisone injections, Surgery to remove scar tissue

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23

Bursitis

Causes: Overuse, Joint trauma, Bacterial infection Conditions: Joint pain and swelling Treatments: Rest, Pain medication, Steroid injection, Aspiration of joint fluid, Antibiotics

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24

Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors

Causes: Unknown, Age 10 to 20 years old, Male sex Conditions: Fever, Pain at tumor site, Fractures, Bruising Treatments: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Bone marrow transplant, Stem cell transplant

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Gout

Causes: Deposits of uric acid crystals accumulate in joint spaces Conditions: Joint pain, Common in big toe and knee joints, Stiffness, Swelling Treatments: Dietary changes (avoidance of rich, fatty foods), Pain medication, Medications to aid in elimination of uric acid in kidneys during urine formation

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Kyphosis

Causes: Growth retardation or improper development of growth plates, Aging and degenerative disk disease contribute to adult onset Conditions: Visible upper back curvature (humpback) Treatments: Exercise, Back bracing, Harrington rod, Spinal fusion in extreme cases

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Lordosis

Causes: Injury, Poor posture, Wearing high heels (inward positioning of back when balancing on balls of feet) Conditions: Inward curvature of the lower back (swayback) Treatments: Corrective shoes, Exercise

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28

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease)

Causes: Hereditary Conditions: Dental issues, Fractures at birth, Loose joints, Muscle weakness, Respiratory issues, Blue sclera of the eye, Triangle-shaped face, Small stature, Spinal curvature Treatments: Fracture repair, Surgery with metal rodding, Physical therapy, Bracing

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Osteoporosis

Causes: Hormone deficiencies, Sedentary lifestyle, Lack of vitamin D, Corticosteroid use (long-term), Smoking Conditions: Fractures, Most common in the spine, wrists, hips, Loss of height, Can result in kyphosis Treatments: Medications,Hormone replacement therapy, Exercise, Supplements

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Osteosarcoma

Causes: Unknown Conditions: Pain in affected bones (usually legs), Swelling with development of tumor growth Treatments: Surgery, Chemotherapy and radiation, Amputation of affected limb

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Paget's Disease

Causes: Hereditary, Viral Conditions: Bone pain and deformity, Fractures, Excessive bone destruction Treatments: Surgery, Medication, Physical therapy

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32

Scoliosis

Causes: Possibly genetic, Can begin prenatally during formation of vertebrae, Muscle weakness Conditions: Bent appearing spine (laterally), Back pain Treatments: Back bracing, Physical therapy, Surgery with rod placement

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33

Fibromyalgia

Causes: Unknown, Exacerbated by sleep deprivation, emotional distress, depression Conditions: Fatigue, Point tenderness and trigger points, Chronic facial pain, Sleep disturbances Treatments: Antidepressants, NSAIDs, Physical therapy, Trigger point injections

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34

Muscular dystrophy

Causes: Hereditary Conditions: Muscle weakness leading to eventual paralysis of muscle groups Treatments: Physical therapy, Bracing, Ambulatory devices, Medications

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35

Myasthenia gravis

Causes: Autoimmune Conditions: Double vision, Muscle weakness, Dysphagia, Difficulty chewing, Difficulty breathing Treatments: Avoiding excessive stress, Rest, Eye patch, Medication

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36

Tendonitis

Causes: Sports- or activity-related Conditions: Pain in joints, Limited range of motion in joint Treatments: Rest, Ice, NSAIDs

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37

Tetanus

Causes: Toxin produced by Clostridium tetani Conditions: Muscle spasm in jaw and neck, Dyspnea, Fever, Irritability, Sweating and drooling Treatments: Antitoxin and antibiotic medications

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38

Hypertension

Causes: Narrowing of arteries, Increased arterial pressure, Risk factors: obesity, smoking, stimulant use, kidney disease, high sodium intake, excessive alcohol consumption Conditions: Excessive sweating, Fatigue, Muscle cramps, Headaches, Dizziness Treatments: Treatment of underlying cause, Lifestyle modifications: diet, exercise, stress management, smoking cessation, Antihypertensive medication

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39

Angina

Causes: Coronary artery narrowing, Atherosclerosis Conditions: Pain/tightness in chest Treatments: Sublingual nitroglycerin, Treatment of underlying condition

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40

Coronary Artery Disease (atherosclerosis)

Causes: Buildup of fat and cholesterol in arteries, Risk factors: high-fat diet, high LDL levels, smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle Conditions: Usually no symptoms prior to heart attack Treatments: Lipid-lowering medications, Low-fat diet, Exercise, Smoking cessation, Coronary artery bypass grafting in severe cases

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Myocardial infarction (heart attack)

Causes: Coronary artery blockage, Atherosclerosis, Blood clot Conditions: Squeezing chest pain that can radiate to shoulder/arm/neck/jaw, Shortness of breath, Diaphoresis, Dizziness, Nausea Treatments: Aspirin, CPR if unconscious, Defibrillation, Anticoagulant medication, Immediate emergency protocol

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42

Aneurysm

Causes: Atherosclerosis, Smoking, High-cholesterol diet, Obesity Conditions: Usually none, Possible back pain, Tachycardia, Dizziness Treatments: Surgery

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43

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

Causes: Smoking, Obesity, Sedentary lifestyle, High-cholesterol diet, Hypertension Conditions: Shortness of breath, Wheezing, Peripheral edema in legs, Irregular heartbeat Treatments: Medications to address tachycardia, Diuretic medication to treat edema, Antihypertensive medications

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44

Mitral valve prolapse

Causes: Usually unknown, Hereditary or related to nervous system disorders Conditions: Mild cases usually have no symptoms, Severe cases can have shortness of breath and palpitations Treatments: None for mild cases, Medication to treat symptoms, Surgery to repair

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45

Thrombophlebitis

Causes: Prolonged periods of inactivity, Hormone replacement therapy, Cancer, Paralysis, Thrombophlebitis Conditions: Pain in affected area, Redness, Swelling Treatments: Heat, Compression stockings, Anticoagulant medication, Surgery

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46

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Causes: HIV virus Conditions: Low T-cell counts, Fever, Diaphoresis, Susceptibility to frequent infection, Weight loss Treatments: Antiretroviral medication to slow progression, Treatment of secondary infections with antibiotics, No cure

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47

Lymphedema

Causes: Parasitic infection, Trauma, Surgical removal of lymph nodes Conditions: Persistent tissue swelling Treatments: Compression stockings, Lymphedema pump, Surgery

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48

Mononucleosis

Causes: Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus Conditions: Extreme fatigue, Sore throat, Fever Treatments: Supportive care

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49

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Causes: Medications, Bacterial infections, Autoimmune Conditions: Fatigue, Body pain, Butterfly rash on face, Headaches, Nausea, Hair loss, Weight loss, Anemia, Shortness of breath Treatments: NSAIDs (steroids, topical creams)

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50

Celiac disease

Causes: Genetic defect, Lack of enzyme that breaks down gluten, Consumption of gluten triggers autoimmune reaction Conditions: Weight loss, Bloating, Loose stools, Eventual systemic organ wasting due to lack of nutrients, Malabsorption Treatment: Gluten-free diet

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51

Asthma

Causes: Allergens, Pollutants, Dust Mites, Cigarette smoke Conditions: Wheezing, Coughing, Feeling Of tightness in chest Treatments: Avoiding allergens/irritants, Rescue inhaler for bronchodilation, Anti-inflammatory steroid inhalers, Leukotriene-receptor antagonists, Steroid injection for an acute episode

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52

Atelectasis

Causes: Cystic fibrosis, COPD, Pleurisy, Lung cancer, Spontaneous Conditions: Dyspnea, Cyanosis, Diaphoresis, Pain Treatments: Thoracentesis, Chest percussion, Deep breathing exercises, Intermittent positive-pressure breathing

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Bronchitis

Causes: Bronchitis, Viral, Environmental pollutants, Cigarette smoke Conditions: Yellow-gray or green productive cough, Chest tightness, Dyspnea, Fever Treatments: Cough medicine, Humidifier, Inhalers, Antibiotics in some cases

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Causes: Smoking, Environmental pollutants Conditions: Dyspnea, Hypoxia, Fatigue, Cough Treatments: Smoking cessation, Inhalers, Lung transplant in extreme cases

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Emphysema

Causes: Damage to the alveoli caused by cigarette smoke, Pollutants, Specific types of dust Conditions: Shortness of breath, Chronic cough, Fatigue Treatments: Smoking cessation, Avoiding cold environments, Antibiotics for secondary lung infections

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56

Influenza

Causes: Respiratory virus Conditions: Fever, Muscle pain, Fatigue, Sore throat, Rhinorrhea Treatments: Symptomatic, OTC analgesics for aches and fever, Antiviral medication

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Legionnaires' disease

Causes: Legionella bacteria that grow in standing water Conditions: Dyspnea, Cough, Headache, Fever Treatments: Antibiotics, Respiratory medications, Oxygen, Fever medication (antipyretic)

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Pneumonia

Causes: Bacterial, Viral, Parasitic Conditions: Thick, colored sputum, Dyspnea, Fever, Cough Treatments: Rest, Antibiotics, OTC analgesics

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59

Pulmonary edema

Causes: Congestive heart failure, Myocardial infarction, Heart valve disorder, Drowning, Injury Conditions: Orthopnea, Dyspnea, Wheeze, Productive cough, Weight gain, Pallor Treatments: Oxygen therapy, Diuretics

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Pulmonary embolism

Causes: Blood clot blocking an artery in the lung Conditions: Dyspnea, Chest pain, Cough, Fainting, Rapid onset of shortness of breath, Diaphoresis Treatments: Circulation support (compression hose), Rest, Anticoagulant medication, Surgically implanted filter

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61

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

Causes: Viral Conditions: Fever, Headache, Dry cough Treatments: Rest, Antiviral medication

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62

Tuberculosis (TB)

Causes: Bacterial Conditions: Chronic cough, Weight loss, Fatigue, Night sweats, Painful or difficult breathing Treatments: Isolation if symptomatic, Medication therapy for 6 to 12 months

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63

Alzheimer's disease

Causes: Degenerative brain disease, Possibly genetic or environmental Conditions: Confusion, Memory loss, Impaired judgment, Personality change, Worsens over time Treatments: Physical activity, Socialization, Medication to slow the progression, No cure

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Bell's palsy

Causes: Unknown cause Conditions: Weakness or paralysis of facial muscles, Facial numbness and drooping, Headache Treatments: NSAIDs, Pain relievers, Usually self-resolving

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Seizures

Causes: Birth trauma, Infections, Brain injury, Head trauma, Drug withdrawal Conditions: Uncontrolled muscle contractions, Loss of consciousness, Visual disturbances Treatments: Medication, Brain surgery

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Meningitis

Causes: Bacterial, viral, fungal infection causing inflammation of the meninges Conditions: Stiff neck, Headache, Fever, Vomiting Treatments: Appropriate medications for type, Bacterial can be fatal

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Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Causes: Viral, Genetic, Immune system dysfunction Conditions: Loss of ability to speak, walk, Double vision, Loss of balance, Weakness in arms/legs Treatments: Supportive, Medications to slow progression, No cure

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Parkinson's disease

Causes: Lack of neurotransmitters, Brain tumors, Drugs, Head trauma Conditions: Arm/leg muscle and joint stiffness, Lack of coordination, Tremor Treatments: Supportive, Medications to slow progression, No cure

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Stroke

Causes: Blockage of artery in neck or brain Conditions: Paralysis, Confusion, Memory impairment, Some symptoms can be permanent Treatments: Physical therapy, Occupational therapy, Speech therapy

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70

Migraine headache

Causes: Hormones, Stress, Dietary, Familial Conditions: Dull to throbbing head pain, Sensitivity to light, sound, Nausea, vomiting, Visual aura Treatments: Medications, Alternative methods (acupuncture, biofeedback, magnesium)

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71

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Causes: Increased age, Increased level of dihydrotestosterone Conditions: Feeling of full bladder after urinating, Weak urine flow, Needing to urinate often Treatments: Alpha blockers, Minimally invasive surgical procedures, Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

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72

Hydrocele

Causes: Failure of inguinal ring to close properly in development, Injury or swelling of the scrotum Conditions: Few symptoms, Pain, Increased size of scrotum Treatments: Surgery if symptomatic

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73

Prostate cancer

Causes: Unknown, Genetics Conditions: Pain, Erectile dysfunction, Dysuria Treatments: Hormone therapy, Radiation therapy, Surgery, Cryosurgery, Chemotherapy

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74

Sexually transmitted infections

Causes: Unprotected contact with infected tissue or fluids Conditions: Varies depending on infection/disease, Pelvic or penile pain, Sores, Itching or discharge, Dysuriam, Body rash, Infertility Treatments: Varies depending on infection/disease, Medication, Cryosurgery, Immunizations

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75

Endometriosis

Causes: Unknown Conditions: Most have no symptoms, Pelvic pain, especially during menses, Painful urination and defecation, Infertility issues Treatments: NSAIDs, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, Oral contraceptives, Progestins, Surgical intervention

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76

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Causes: Untreated STDs/STIs, Multiple sexual partners, Frequent douching Conditions: Lower abdominal pain, Back pain, Fever, Rapid pulse, Vaginal discharge, Pain during sexual intercourse Treatments: Antibiotic treatment, Surgical intervention to treat scarring

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77

Cervical cancer

Causes: Particular strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) Conditions: Abnormal vaginal bleeding, Lower abdominal or pelvic pain, Abnormal vaginal discharge, Pain during sexual intercourse Treatments: Surgical intervention (partial or complete hysterectomy, removal of lymph nodes in affected regions), Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy

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78

Acute kidney failure

Causes: Burns, Dehydration, Hemorrhage, Low blood pressure, Trauma Conditions: Little to no urine production, Swelling in extremities, Mental confusion, Coma, Seizures, Nose bleeds Treatments: Increase dietary protein, Fluid and potassium intake regulation, Dialysis

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79

Chronic kidney disease

Causes: Diabetes, Hypertension, Kidney stones, Polycystic kidney disease Conditions: Headache, Seizures, Confusion, Fatigue, Anemia, Abnormal heart or lung sounds Treatments: Antibiotics, Blood transfusion, Control of blood pressure, Dialysis, Kidney transplant

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80

Incontinence

Causes: Nervous system disorders, Urinary tract infection (UTI), Bladder cancer, Prostate disorders Conditions: Involuntary urination Treatments: Medication, Surgical removal of the prostate, Kegel exercises, Surgery

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81

Polycystic kidney disease

Causes: Enlarged kidneys due to cysts, Inherited Conditions: Hypertension, Fatigue, Anemia, Heart murmurs Treatments: Medication, Draining of cysts, Surgical removal of kidney

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Pyelonephritis

Causes: Bladder infection that spreads to kidneys Conditions: Fatigue, Fever, Painful urination, Cloudy or bloody urine Treatments: Antibiotics

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83

Renal calculi

Causes: Highly concentrated urine, UTI, Gout Conditions: Severe back or abdominal pain, Fever, Nausea, Urgency Treatments: Medication, Surgery, Lithotripsy

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84

Appendicitis

Causes: Idiopathic inflammation of the appendix Conditions: RLQ pain, Loss of appetite, Nausea Treatments: Antibiotics, Appendectomy

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85

Cirrhosis

Causes: Scarring of liver, Can be autoimmune, Medication, Alcohol, Hepatitis B or C Conditions: Anemia, Fatigue, Fever, Enlarged liver, Jaundice, Weight loss Treatments: Avoid alcohol consumption, Antibiotics, Diuretics

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86

Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

Causes: Insoluble cholesterol and bile salt Conditions: Can be asymptomatic, Radiating right upper quadrant pain, Fever, Nausea, vomiting Treatments: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Lithotripsy

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87

Colitis (inflammation of the large intestine)

Causes: Viral or bacterial infection Conditions: Diarrhea, Abdominal pain, Bloating Treatments: Treatment of underlying cause, Surgery

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Constipation (difficulty eliminating feces)

Causes: Inactivity, Lack of fiber and water in diet, Medications Conditions: Bloating, Abdominal pain, Hard feces Treatments: Increased dietary fiber and water, Physical activity

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Crohn's disease

Causes: Inflammatory bowel disease, Autoimmune Conditions: Fever, Joint pain, Tender gums, Abnormal abdominal sounds, Constipation or diarrhea, Intestinal bleeding Treatments: Dietary changes, Antibiotics, Surgery

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90

Diverticulitis (abnormal out-pouching of intestinal wall)

Causes: Bacterial, Viral, Parasitic Conditions: Constipation or diarrhea, Bloody stools, Abdominal pain, Nausea Treatments: High-fiber diet, Antibiotics

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91

Hemorrhoids (varicose vein of the rectum or anus)

Causes: Constipation, Straining during bowel movements, Pelvic pressure during pregnancy, childbirth Conditions: Itching, pain in anal area, Blood with bowel movements, Visible protrusion from the anus Treatments: High-fiber diet, Stool softeners, Surgical removal

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92

Hiatal hernia (part of stomach protrudes through diaphragm into chest cavity)

Causes: Unknown causes, Smoking, Obesity Conditions: Heartburn, Chest pain, Excessive burping, Nausea, vomiting Treatments: Weight reduction, Medication, Surgical repair

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93

Stomach ulcer

Causes: Bacterial infection, Smoking, Medication Conditions: Nausea, vomiting, Abdominal pain Treatments: Antibiotics, Antacid medication, Surgery

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94

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear

Causes: Plant and twist motion of the foot and knee Conditions: Pain, Swelling, Knee buckling Diagnosis: Physical exam, Radiographic confirmation (typically MRI) Treatments: RICE, Surgical repair, Allograft, Physical therapy

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95

Concussion

Causes: Head impact Conditions: Nausea, Loss of balance, Disorientation, Headache Diagnosis: Physical exam, Neurologic testing, CT of the brain Treatments: Rest, Treatment of symptoms

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96

Muscle strain

Causes: Overexertion of a muscle not properly warmed up for activity level Conditions: Pain, Swelling, "Tight" feeling Diagnosis: Physical exam, MRI Treatments: RICE, Avoiding physical strain to the area

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97

Epicondylitis (tennis elbow)

Causes: Overuse of elbow causing tiny ligament tears Conditions: Swelling, Tenderness, Grip weakness Diagnosis: Physical exam, X-ray, MRI Treatments: Rest, Ice, NSAIDs, Forearm strap, Extended break from aggravating activity

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98

Rotator cuff tear

Causes: Repetitive stress of the shoulder joint Conditions: Pain, Weakness, Inability to raise arm over head Diagnosis: Physical exam, X-ray, MRI Treatments: Rest, NSAIDs, Cortisone injection to shoulder joint, Surgery

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99

Bone fracture

Causes: Impact injury resulting in bone cracking or breaking, Stress fractures: overuse or repetitive stress Conditions: Pain, Swelling, Loss of function Diagnosis: Physical exam, X-ray, CT if plain films are not clear Treatments: Immobilization with internal or external device (cast, splint, pins, plates, screws)

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100

Joint dislocation (subluxations)

Causes: Impact injury removing bones from proper joint alignment Conditions: Pain, Loss of sensation, Immobility Diagnosis: Physical exam, X-ray, MRI, CT Treatments: Realignment of bones, Immobilization, Physical therapy to strengthen surrounding muscles, Surgery for repeated incidences

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