SWP 2022-2023 Vocabulary

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a priori

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350 Terms

1

a priori

Proceeding from a known or assumed cause to a necessarily related effect; deductive

Derived by or designating the process of reasoning without reference to particular facts or experience

Knowable without appeal to particular experience

Made before or without examination; not supported by factual study

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2

abbé

Used as a title for the superior of a monastery in a French-speaking area

Used as a title for a cleric in a major or minor orders in a French-speaking area.

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3

aberration

A deviation from what is typical or normal; "an election that was an aberration from usual state politics"

A departure from what is considered natural or proper: "Throughout history, the beast with a taste for human flesh has been regarded as an aberration, even as an outlaw"

An abnormal, usually temporary alteration in one's mental state.

A defect of focus, such as blurring in an image; An imperfect image caused by a physical defect in an optical element, as in a lens.

The apparent displacement of the position of a celestial body in the direction of motion of an observer on Earth, caused by the motion of Earth and the finite velocity of light.

Genetics: A deviation in the normal structure or number of chromosomes in an organism.

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4

absolution

The act of absolving or the state of being absolved.

The formal remission of sin imparted by a priest, as in the sacrament of penance.

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5

acrid

Unpleasantly sharp, pungent, or bitter to the taste or smell.

Caustic in language or tone: an acrid political campaign.

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6

adipose tissue

A type of connective tissue that contains stored cellular fat.

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7

adjuration

An earnest, solemn appeal.

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8

aide-mémoire

A memorandum setting forth the major points of a proposed discussion or agreement, used especially in diplomatic communications.

Something, such as a mnemonic device, that serves as an aid to memory.

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9

albatross

Any of several large web-footed birds constituting the family Diomedeidae, chiefly of the oceans of the Southern Hemisphere, and having a hooked beak and long narrow wings.

A source of worry or distress; An obstacle to success

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10

aleatory

Dependent on chance, luck, or an uncertain outcome "an aleatory contract between an oil prospector and a landowner."

Of or characterized by gambling "aleatory contests."

also aleatoric... Music: Using or consisting of sounds to be chosen by the performer or left to chance; indeterminate: "An object placed inside the piano added an aleatory element to the piece."

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11

algophobia

Excessive fear of pain.

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12

altiplano

A high plateau, as in the Andean regions of Bolivia, Peru, and Argentina.

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13

amaurosis

Total loss of vision, especially when occurring without pathological changes to the eye.

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14

amicable

Characterized by or exhibiting friendliness or goodwill; friendly.

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15

aminiotic

(aminion) A tough, thin membrane that forms a sac enclosing the embryo or fetus of a mammal, bird, or reptile. It is filled with a serous fluid in which the embryo or fetus is suspended.

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16

amphora

A two-handled jar with a narrow neck used by the ancient Greeks and Romans to carry wine or oil.

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17

anaclisis

Psychological dependence on another or others.

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18

analemma

A graduated scale in the shape of a figure eight, indicating the sun's declination and the equation of time for every day of the year, often found on sundials and globes.

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19

angelology

The branch of theology having to do with angels.

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20

Anglo-Saxon

A member of one of the Germanic peoples, the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, who settled in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries.

Any of the descendants of the Anglo-Saxons, who were dominant in England until the Norman Conquest of 1066.

A person of English ancestry.

The English language from the middle of the 5th to the beginning of the 12th century.

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21

apotropaic

Intended to ward off evil "an apotropaic symbol."

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22

apparition

A ghostly figure; a specter.

A sudden or unusual sight:

The act of appearing; appearance.

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23

appurtenance

Something associated with another, more important thing; an accessory.

Equipment, such as clothing, tools, or instruments, used for a specific purpose or task; gear.

Law: A right, privilege, or property that is considered incident to the principal property for purposes such as passage of title, conveyance, or inheritance.

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24

arbovirus

Any of a large group of RNA viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks, and include the causative agents of encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue.

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25

arthrotomy

Surgical incision into a joint.

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26

asthenopia

Weakness or fatigue of the eyes, usually accompanied by headache and dimming of vision.

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27

astutely

Having or showing shrewdness and discernment, especially with respect to one's own concerns.

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28

bacteriostasis

The inhibition of growth, but not the killing, of bacteria.

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29

ballottement

Medicine: A palpatory technique for detecting or examining a floating object in the body, as: a. The use of a finger to push sharply against the uterus and detect the presence or position of a fetus by its return impact. b. Palpation of the abdominal wall while a kidney is being pushed sharply from the backside, used as a test for determining the presence of a floating kidney.

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30

bandolier

A belt fitted with small pockets or loops for carrying cartridges and worn across the chest by soldiers.

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31

belletrist

A writer of belles-lettres.

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32

Bell's palsy

A unilateral facial muscle paralysis of sudden onset, resulting from trauma, compression, or infection of the facial nerve and characterized by muscle weakness and a distorted facial expression.

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33

bereavement

To take a loved one from (a person), especially by death: "Cry aloud for the man who is dead, for the woman and children bereaved"

To take something valuable or necessary from (a person or thing): "He was subject to fits, which bereaved him ... of his senses"

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34

Bhopal

The capital of Madhya Pradesh, India, in the west-central part of the state north-northwest of Nagpur. Founded in the early 18th century, it is an industrial and trade center. In 1984 a toxic gas leak at an insecticide plant killed more than 3,000 people.

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35

biathlon

An athletic competition that combines events in cross-country skiing and rifle shooting

Any of various other athletic competitions combining two successive events, such as long-distance swimming and running.

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36

bioclimatology

The study of the effects of climatic conditions on living organisms.

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37

bissextile

Of or relating to a leap year.

Of or relating to the extra day falling in a leap year.

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38

bordure

Heraldry: A border around a shield.

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39

bossa nova

A style of popular Brazilian music derived from the samba but with more melodic and harmonic complexity and less emphasis on percussion.

A lively Brazilian dance that is similar to the samba.

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40

Botswana

A country of south-central Africa. Originally inhabited by the San and later (after the 18th century) by the Tswana, the region became a British protectorate as Bechuanaland (1885) and gained full independence in 1966. Gaborone is the capital and the largest city.

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41

Bouvier des Flandres

A dog of a large breed developed in Belgium for herding cattle, having a thick, fawn to black coat.

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42

bouzouki

A Greek stringed instrument having a long fretted neck and usually pear-shaped body.

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43

bravissimo

Used to express great approval, especially of a performance.

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44

bruxism

The habitual, involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth, usually during sleep.

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45

cainotophobia

Fear of newness or change.

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46

caitiff

A despicable coward; a wretch.

Despicable and cowardly.

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47

calathus

A vase-shaped basket represented in Greek painting and sculpture.

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48

callowness

Lacking adult maturity or experience; immature: a callow young man.

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49

cameoing

a) A gem or shell carved in relief, especially one in which the raised design and the background consist of layers of contrasting colors. b) The technique of carving in this way. c) A medallion with a profile cut in raised relief.

A brief vivid portrayal or depiction: a literary cameo. A brief appearance of a prominent actor or celebrity, as in a single scene of a motion picture. Also called cameo role.

To make into or like a gem or shell carved in relief.

To portray in sharp, delicate relief, as in a literary composition.

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50

capriole

An upward leap made by a trained horse without going forward and with a backward kick of the hind legs at the height of the leap.

A playful leap or jump; a caper.

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51

carabao

A large, domesticated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Asia that has large spreading horns and is used especially as a draft animal. The wild water buffalo is sometimes described as a different species, B. arnee.

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52

Caracas

The capital and largest city of Venezuela, in the northern part of the country near the Caribbean coast. Founded by the Spanish in 1567, it grew rapidly during the oil boom of the 1950s, and is the country's commercial, industrial, and cultural hub.

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53

cartouche

A structure or figure, often in the shape of an oval shield or oblong scroll, used as an architectural or graphic ornament or to bear a design or inscription.

An oval or oblong figure in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics that encloses characters expressing the names or epithets of royal or divine personages.

A heavy paper cartridge case.

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54

categorical

Being without exception or qualification; absolute: a categorical refusal.

a) Of or relating to a category or categories. b) According to or using categories: a categorical arrangement of specimens.

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55

cecropia moth

A large North American silkworm moth (Hyalophora cecropia) having brownish wings with red and white markings.

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56

cenacle

A clique or circle, especially of writers.

A small dining room, usually on an upper floor.

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57

Cézanne

French artist and leading postimpressionist figure. His most famous paintings include Mont Sainte-Victoire (1885-1887) and The Card Players (1890-1892).

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58

chador

A long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women, especially in Iran and South Asia, consisting of a semicircular piece of cloth draped over the hair and shoulders to cover the body while leaving the face uncovered or partially concealed.

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59

charmeuse

A satin-finished silk fabric.

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60

cheval glass

A long mirror mounted on swivels in a frame.

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61

Cimmerian

Very dark or gloomy.

Greek Mythology: One of a mythical people described by Homer as inhabiting a land of perpetual darkness.

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62

citrine

A pale yellow variety of crystalline quartz resembling topaz.

A light to moderate olive.

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63

clinquant

Glittering with gold or tinsel.

Imitation gold leaf; tinsel; glitter.

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64

cogitable

Thinkable; conceivable:

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65

collusion

An often secret action taken by two or more parties to achieve an illegal or improper purpose.

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66

commingle

To become blended; to mix

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67

complaisant

Exhibiting a desire or willingness to please; cheerfully obliging.

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68

concordance

Agreement; concord.

An alphabetical index of all the words in a text or corpus of texts, showing every contextual occurrence of a word: a concordance of Shakespeare's works.

Genetics: The presence of a given trait in both members of a pair of twins.

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69

contemn

To view with contempt; despise

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70

contraindicate

To indicate the inadvisability of (a medical treatment, for example).

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71

conveyance

The act of conveying.

A means of conveying, especially a vehicle for transportation.

Law: a) Transfer of title to property from one party to another. b) The document by which a property transfer is effected.

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72

convoke

To cause to assemble in a meeting; convene.

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73

coquettish

A woman who regularly makes romantic or sexual overtures; a flirt.

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74

corban

A sacrifice made to God by the ancient Hebrews at the Temple in Jerusalem.

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75

corroborate

To strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain.

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76

couchant

Heraldry: Lying down with the head raised

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77

courante

A 16th-century court dance characterized by short advances and retreats.

Music: The second movement of the classical baroque suite, typically following the allemande.

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78

coxcombry

Behavior that is characteristic of or appropriate to a coxcomb; foppish conceit.

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79

cribriform

Perforated like a sieve.

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80

croupier

An attendant at a gaming table who manages game play and collects and pays bets.

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81

cryonics

The process of freezing and storing the body of a diseased, recently deceased person to prevent tissue decomposition so that at some future time the person might be brought back to life upon development of new medical cures.

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82

cryptozoology

The study of creatures, such as the Loch Ness monster, whose existence has not been substantiated.

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83

cumulonimbus

An extremely dense, vertically developed cumulus with a low dark base and fluffy masses that extend to great heights, usually producing heavy rains, thunderstorms, or hailstorms.

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84

décolletage

A low neckline on a woman's garment, especially a dress.

A dress with a low neckline in front.

The area of a woman's body that is exposed when a garment with a low neckline is worn.

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85

deionize

To remove ions from (a solution) using an ion-exchange process.

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86

delineate

To draw or depict:

To describe or characterize in words:

To mark, form, or show the outline or border of To establish the position of (a border): The treaty delineates the border between Spanish and American territory.

To show or contain a distinguishing characteristic of; distinguish: "The first game ... delineated the differences between the two teams"

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87

démodé

No longer in fashion; outmoded.

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88

depiction

To represent in a picture or sculpture

To represent in words; describe: stories that depict life on the frontier.

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89

derangement

To disturb the order, arrangement, or functioning of: an asteroid impact large enough to derange the climate.

To upset (normal condition or functioning, as of a bodily organ).

To cause to be psychotic or otherwise severely mentally unsound.

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90

deuteragonist

The character second in importance to the protagonist in classical Greek drama.

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91

dialysis

The separation of smaller molecules from larger molecules or of dissolved substances from colloidal particles in a solution by selective diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.

Medicine: Any of several techniques, especially hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, in which filtration through a semipermeable membrane is used to remove metabolic wastes and excess fluid from the blood of people with kidney failure.

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92

dirndl

A full-skirted dress with a tight bodice and low neck, often worn with an apron.

A full skirt with a gathered waistband.

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93

disorientation

Loss of one's sense of direction, position, or relationship with one's surroundings.

Mental confusion or impaired awareness, especially regarding place, time, or personal identity.

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94

dissertate

To discourse formally.

To prepare a dissertation.

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95

distillery

An establishment for distilling, especially for distilling alcoholic liquors.

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96

doloroso

Music: In a mournful or plaintive manner. Used chiefly as a direction.

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97

dragoman

An interpreter or guide in countries where Arabic, Turkish, or Persian is spoken.

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98

dramatis personae

  1. The characters in a play or story.

  2. A list of the characters in a play or story.

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99

dromedary

A one-humped domesticated camel (Camelus dromedarius), widely used as a beast of burden in desert regions from northern Africa to western Asia. Also called Arabian camel

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100

ecchymosis

The passage of blood from ruptured blood vessels into subcutaneous tissue, marked by a purple discoloration of the skin.

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