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James Monroe

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1

James Monroe

Monroe Doctrine, 5th President, Democratic-Republican, his presidency coincided with the era of Good Feelings,

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2

Lewis and Clark

Expedition into the Louisiana Purchase to show that it was a good purchase and to map out the new land

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3

John Marshall

4th Chief Justice of the United States, US Secretary of State under Adams, Marshall was the one who went to France for the XYZ Affair, Marshall upheld judicial review during the Marbury v. Madison trial

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4

Aaron Burr

New York senator, went against Jefferson in the 1800 Presidential election, shot Hamilton

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5

James Madison

Virginia Senator, wrote the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

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6

Tecumseh

War of 1812: Tecumseh and other Native Americans were supported by the British to fight America

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7

Francis Scott Key

Wrote the lyrics for the National Anthem - "The Star-Spangled Banner", lawyer who worked on the Burr conspiracy trial

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8

John Quincy Adams

6th President, originally a Federalist then switched to Democratic-Repulican to be elected president then became a Whig, supported the American System

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9

Henry Clay

The 1st whig, known as the "Great Compromiser", Created the American System, Maysville Road

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10

John C. Calhoun

Statesman from South Carolina, adamantly supported slavery, leading proponent of states' rights, limited government, nullification, and opposition to high tariffs, heavily influenced the South's succession from the Union in 1860-1861

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11

Daniel Webster

Stateman who represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts, was a Federalist, Republican, and Whig, won the Gibbons v. Ogden court case, objected to nullification

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12

Andrew Jackson

President, Indian Removal Act, grew popular because of the Battle of New Orleans

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13

Denmark Vesey

Free black community leader in Charleston, South Carolina, accused and convicted of planning a major slave revolt in 1822

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14

Martin van Buren

8th President, Democratic Party, anti-slavery leader who led the Free Soil Party ticket in the 1848 presidential election

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15

Santa Anna

Mexican politician and general, his military failures resulted in Mexico losing half its territory in the Texas Revolution of 1836 and the Mexican Cession of 1848, sold part of Mexican territory to the US in 1853

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16

Joseph Smith

Religious leader during the Second Great Awakening and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement, published the Book of Mormon

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17

Bringham Young

Religious leader and politician, second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon), founded Salt Lake City and led the Mormons there

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18

Dorothea Dix

Prison reform (part of the Second Great Awakening)

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19

Sam Slater

Known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution". He designed the first textile mills in the US, owned 13 spinning mills and developed tenant farms and company towns (Slatersville, Rhode Island)

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20

Cyrus McCormick

Founded the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, invented the mechanical reaper

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21

Robert Fulton

Developed the world's first commercially successful steamboat (Clermont), designed the first practical submarine, the Nautilus, for Napoleon

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22

Horace Mann

Education reform (part of the Second Great Awakening)

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23

Noah Webster

Created the first American dictionary, the Merriam-Webster dictionary, cultural nationalism

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24

Washington Irving

Writer, "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"

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25

Edgar Allen Poe

Romantic writer, "The Raven" and "The Tell-Tale Heart"

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26

Lucretia Mott

Quaker, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and social reformer, she had formed the idea of reforming the position of women in society

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27

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Leader of the women's rights movement, main force behind the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, primary author of the Declaration of Sentiments, abolitionist

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28

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Writer who focused on history, morality, and religion, "Twice-Told Tales"

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29

Henry David Thoreau

Known for his essay "Civil Disobedience," an argument for disobedience to an unjust state, abolitionist

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30

Walt Whitman

American poet, called the father of free verse, "Leaves of Grass" and "O Captain! My Captain!"

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31

David Walker

Abolitionist, published "An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World," a call for black unity and a fight against slavery

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32

Nat Turner

Slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. The rebels killed between 55 and 65 people, the rebellion was suppressed within a few days, approximately 120 enslaved people and free African Americans were killed by militias and mobs in the area, later an additional 56 enslaved people were executed

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33

Sojourner Truth

Abolitionist and women's rights activist, she escaped slavery with her infant daughter in 1826. After going to court to recover her son in 1828, she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man

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34

Frederick Douglass

Escaped slavery in Maryland, a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, supported women's suffrage

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35

Zachary Taylor

12th President, major general and national hero for his victories in the Mexican-American War, died 16 months into his term

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36

John C. Fremont

Senator from California, first Republican nominee for president in 1856, opposed slavery, major in the army during the Mexican-American War

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37

Marbury v. Madison

Supreme Court Case("Midnight Judges"), judicial review established, 1st time an act of Congress was declared unconstitutional

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38

Patronage

The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another

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39

Judicial Review

The Supreme Court can judge if laws are constitutional or not

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40

Impeachment

The process by which a legislative body initiates charges against a public official for misconduct, the House of Representatives brings charges of misconduct and the Senate administers a trial and sentencing

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41

Impressment

When the British navy took American sailors and made them join the British navy

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42

Midnight Judges

Adams appointed Supreme Court judges right before he left office, led to the Marbury v. Madison supreme court case

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43

Embargo Act

America stops trading with everyone

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44

Non-Intercourse Act

Lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports

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45

Sectionalism

Loyalty to one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole (North vs South)

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46

Louisiana Purchase

Jefferson buys the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon, Haitian Revolution makes France want to give up land in America, Jefferson uses implied powers to buy the land, $15 million

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47

Treaty of Ghent

Ends the War of 1812, restored relations between the two parties to status quo ante bellum by restoring the pre-war borders of June 1812

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48

Hartford Convention

1814, New England Federalists consider possible secession, War of 1812 ends and the Federalist party fades away

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49

Nationalism

An idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the state, it aims to build and maintain a single national identity

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50

Protective Tariff

Taxes placed on foreign imports to protect American manufacturers- benefits the North, South dislikes it

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51

Second Bank of the United States

The second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank, handled the national government's funds and public credit, chartered by President James Madison, failed to secure recharter by Jackson and underwent liquidation in 1841

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52

McCulloch v. Maryland

Result of the trial was that the National Bank is constitutional under the elastic clause

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53

American System

Created by Clay, protects American manufacturing, a plan to strengthen and unify the nation, high tariffs, internal improvements, preserve the Bank of the United States

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54

Gibbons v. Ogden

The power to regulate interstate commerce, which was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Consititution, encompassed the power to regulate navigation, provided the basis for Congress's regulation of railroads, freeways, television, and radio broadcases

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55

Era of Good Feelings

The only time in American history when there was a singular political party

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56

Monroe Doctrine

America states that Europe must stop colonizing the Western Hemisphere, and America will stay out of European affairs

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57

Common Man

The undistinguished commoner lacking class or rank distinction or special attributes

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58

Spoils System

A practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its supporters, friends, and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party, Pendleton Act was passed in 1883 due to a civil service reform movement to end this system, Rotation in office

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59

Democratic-Republicans

Political party that prefers state governments and a strict interpretation of the Constitution

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60

King Mob

Sought to emphasize the cultural anarchy and disorder being ignored in Brtian, with the ultimate aim of promoting proletarian revolution

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61

Corrupt Bargain

In the 1824 election, without an absolute majority winner in the Electoral College, the 12th Amendment dictated that the outcome of the Presidential election be determined by the House of Representatives. Clay gave his support to John Quincy Adams, who then selected Clay to be his Secretary of State when elected

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62

Tariff of Abominations

1828, very high protective tariff, the bill was denounced in the South and escalated to a threat of civil war in the Nullification crisis of 1832-1833

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63

Maysville Road

Internal Improvement - road that spans multiple states, federal money to pay for it, but Jackson says that would be unconstitutional

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64

12th Amendment

Provides the procedure for electing the president and vice president, separated the election for president and vice-president

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65

Nicholas Biddle

American financier, served as the 3rd (and last) president of the Second Bank of the United States, chief opponent of Jackson in the Bank War

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66

Annexation

The forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state, usually following military occupation of the territory (Texas)

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67

Specie Circular

United States presidential executive order issued by Jackson in 1836 pursuant to the Coinage Act. It required payment for government land to be in gold and silver, Results: devaluation of paper currency increased, inflation and prices increased, caused the Panic of 1837

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68

Slavocracy

A ruling class, political order or government composed of slave owners and plantation owners

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69

Panic of 1837

Financial crisis that touched off a major depression, profits, prices, and wages went down, westward expansion was stalled, unemployment went up. Origins: speculative lending practices in the West, sharp decline in cotton prices, collapsing land bubble, international specie flows, restrictive lending policies in Britain, and lack of a central bank

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70

Force Bill

(Jackson) expanded presidential power and was designed to compel the state of South Carolina's compliance with a series of federal tariffs. The legislation stipulated that the president could deploy the army to force South Carolina to comply with the law

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71

Seminoles

Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century, forced to Oklahoma by the Indian Removal Act

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72

Lone Star State

Texas

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73

Pet Banks

State banks that Jackson stored the federal funds in when he refused to renew the National Bank of the United States

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74

Industrial Revolution

Transition to new manufacturing processes; from hand production methods to machines - economic, social, and political changes

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75

Whig Party

The political party that rose to oppose the Democratic Party - Clay, Webster, Crittenden, and John Quincy Adams. Support centered among entrepreneurs, professionals, planters, social reformers, devout Protestants, and the emerging urban middle class

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76

Pony Express

American express mail service that used relays of horse-mounted riders. Reduced the time for messages to travel from the East to the West

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77

Nativism

The policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants

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78

Unitarianism

Nontrinitarian branch of Christian theology. Believed that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings and that he is a savior, but not God himself, reject original sin

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79

Tammany Hall

New York political organization founded in 1786. Main local political machine of the Democratic Party, and played a major role in controlling New York City and New York State politics and helping immigrants (Irish) rise in American politics

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80

Mormons

Religious and cultural group, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement started by Joseph Smith. Salt Lake City

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81

Temperance

A movement during the Second Great Awakening of abstaining from alcohol

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82

Hudson River School

American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by Romanticism. Typically depict the Hudson River Vally, Catskills, Adirondack Mountains, and White Mountains

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83

Transcendentalism

Philosophical movement that developed in New England. Core belief is in the inherent goodness of people and nature, and while society and its institutions have corrupted the purity of the individual, people are at their best when truly self-reliant and independent

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84

Manifest Destiny

Cultural belief that American settlers were destined to expand across North America

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85

Spot Resolution

Requested President Polk to provide Congress with the exact location upon which blood was spilled on American soil, as Polk had claimed in 1846 when asking Congress to declare war on Mexico.

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86

Bear Flag Revolt

The California Republic, or Bear Flag Republic, was an unrecognized breakaway state from Mexico, that for 25 days in 1846 militarily controlled an area north of San Francisco

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87

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Peace treaty signed on Feburary 2nd, 1848, between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican-American War. The United States had to pay $15 million to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to $5 million. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, and gave the US ownership of California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, as well as an area comprising most of New Mexico, and approximately two-thirds of Arizona

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88

Wilmot Proviso

An unsuccessful 1846 proposal in Congress to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican-American War. The conflict over the Wilmot Proviso was one of the major events leading to the Civil War

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89

Annexation of Texas

1836, Texas declared independence from the Republic of Mexico and applied for annexation to the United States the same year but was rejected. In 1845, the Republic of Texas was annexed

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90

Fifty-four Forty or Fight

1844 Democratic presidential candidate, Polk, became a big promoter of Manifest Destiny as he ran on a platform of taking control over the entire Oregon Territory, as well as Texas and California. He used the campaign slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" - named after the line of latitude serving as the territory's northern boundary

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91

William Lloyd Garrison

Abolitionist, suffragist, social reformer. Rejected the inherent validity of the American government on the basis that its engagement in war, imperialism, and slavery made it corrupt and tyrannical

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92

Mexican Cession

A region of Mexico that ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848.

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93

John O'Sullivan

Used the term "manifest destiny" in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon COuntry to the United States

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94

Remember the Alamo

The Battle of the Alamo followed a 13-day siege during the Texas Revolution, where Mexican troops under President General Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission, killing most of the occupants inside. Santa Anna's refusal to take prisoners during the battle inspired many Texians and Tejanos to join the Texian Army

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95

Oregon Trail

Wagon route and emigrant trial that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon. However, it was dangerous

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96

James K. Polk

11th President, Democratic Party, advocate of Jacksonian democracy. Known for extending the territory of the United States through the Mexican-American War

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97

Romanticism

Nature and seeing the good in human life

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98

War of 1812

America and Britain fight again - ends with Treaty of Ghent

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99

Erie Canal

Internal Improvement to connect waterways to make trade and transportation easier and cheaper, connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes

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100

National Road

Maysville Road, internal improvement, road that connects multiple states to make trade and transportation easier, cheaper, and safer

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