NEUROSCIENCE FINAL

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points on the retina which project to the same direction in space are called

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Medicine

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1

points on the retina which project to the same direction in space are called

corresponding points

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2

the fovea in OS and OD are ____ ____ because each fovea projects to what we are looking at directly

corresponding points

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3

assume that there are 50 males in the audience. how many are likely to have R/G deficiency?

4

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4

how many of the 4 individuals have a green deficiency? how many have a red deficiency?

green 3 ; red 1

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5

there are 200 females. how many have a red or green color deficiency?

1

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6

your pt is a 22 years old pregnant woman (ultrasound indicates a male) with normal color vision on PIP screening (12 of 14 correct). she notes that her father is color deficient. the probability that her baby will be color deficient is

50%

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7

electron falls from higher to lower orbit -->

energy is released

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8

E moves forward as a ___ with a specific wavelength (meters/wave)

wave

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9

energy vibrates as a particle named ____ with a specific frequency (waves/sec)

photon

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10

the higher the frequency, the ____ the wavelength, the ____ the energy

shorter ; greater

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11

visible light:

400-700 nm

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12

why do we see 400-700nm?

visible light allows this much to pass. eyes developed to meet the nuanced colors. most radiation absorbed. constrained the evolution of cones...

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13

precision -

1 millionth of 1 mm!

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14

red cones outnumber....

green cones 2:1

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15

red + green outnumber

blue cones 10:1

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16

what is the shortest? R/G/B?

B

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17

___ cones absent in the central fovea

what is not in the fovea?

blue

rods

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18

which wavelength are we most sensitive to (special peak) of the:

R cones G cones B cones

566nm 541 nm 441 nm

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19

color discrimination depends on __ ___ in cone stimulation

the difference

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20

lack of R cones is termed

dicromacy:

protan dichromat aka protanomoly

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21

protanomoly occurs in ___% of men

1

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22

lack of G cones is termed

deutan dichromat

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23

deutan dichromat occurs in ___% of males

1

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24

plot of points equidistant with an image on the fovea of each eye is called

horopter

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25

horopter -

spatial plot of corresponding points. all points on the horopter perceived at same distance.

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26

points on the horopter appear...

in the same plane

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27

deuteranomalous

M cones affected; insensitive to red-green

green shifted toward red

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28

protanomalous

L cones affected; insensitive to red-green

red shifted toward green

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29

protanomalous occurs in ___% of males

1

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30

deuteranomalous occurs in __% of males

5

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31

points off the horopter appear ____ than fixation point

closer or more distant

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32

retinal disparity

a binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance—the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.

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33

disparate retinal points

points off the horopter stimulate these

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34

points on the retina which project to (point to) the same direction in space are called

corresponding points

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35

___ ___ is the basis for stereoscopic depth perception

retinal disparity

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36

brain may ___ double image

suppress

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37

physiological diplopia

double vision caused by focusing eyes so that light from an object falls onto two separate spots on the retina and is detected in both sides of the brain

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38

area around horopter in which all points are seen as single is called...

Panama's Fusional Area

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39

points on retina wit common direction

corresponding points

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40

beyond panum's area

physiological diplopia or suppression occurs

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41

T/F a midline object closer than fixation produces a crossed disparity

T

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42

T/F physiological diplopia occurs for disparities within Panum's area

F

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43

T/F a midline object farther than fixation produces an uncrossed disparity

T

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44

T/F cortical disparity detectors underline stereoscopic vision

T

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45

T/F steroacuity is primarily limited by the diameter of foveal cones

F

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46

T/F perception of hue depends on the difference in stimulation between at least 2 cone types

T

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47

T/F photopic brightness depends on the number of rods stimulated

F

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48

T/F hereditary color deficiency is 16x more common in males vs females

T

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49

T/F the shorter the wavelength, the higher the E

T

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50

T/F hereditary color deficiency genes are located on the Y chromosome

F

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51

color deficients rely on: (3)

brightness, context and learning

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52

perception of relative depth between two objects

distance between objects in real space

stereopsis

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53

the slight difference in length of the ___ ___ ______ is used by the brain to perceive depth

lines of stimulation

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54

what is imaged on retina of each eye as a horizontal distance (line of stimulation)

stereopsis

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55

what is the first step in joining the perception from each eye

bring nerve fibers closer together

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56

cross point of optic nerve

optic chiasm

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57

LGN sent what to the visual cortex

optic radiations

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58

in the pic chasm, nasal fibers cross such that: (2)

temporal retinal fibers OS join with nasal fibers OD

temporal retinal fibers OD join with nasal fibers OS

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59

only nasal fibers cross (what percentage of fibers)

53-57%

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60

function of optic chiasm

splits each half of sight from right eye and sends a half to both hemispheres

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61

retinal ganglion cell fibers form

optic nerves

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62

ipsilateral temporal retinal fibers join with

nasal contralateral fibers

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63

cross point -

optic chiasm

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64

after chiasm -

optic tract

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65

next stop -

LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus)

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66

why do certain occupations need normal color vision?

they cannot perform critical tasks as well

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67

this performance decrement may be worsened by?

stress, altitude/hypoxia, low light, fatigue

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68

VA of a 1-month old is...

1 cycle/deg AKA 20/600

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69

acuity reaches 20/100 by what age?

1 year old

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70

improves to 20/20 by what age?

3-5

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71

visual evoked potentials (visual brainwaves) indicate?

more rapid development of VA

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72

limitation of VA during 1st year of life due to?

immaturity of retina

foveal cones

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73

what are some techniques used to check VA of infants or nonverbal patients? (3)

optokinetic nystagmus preferential looking VEP's

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74

optokinetic nystagmus

a reflexive eye movement in which the eyes will involuntarily track a continually moving object

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75

infants prefer to look at?

what is its success percentage?

patterned stimuli to uniform fields of the same mean luminance (average brightness)

75%

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76

VEP

visual evoked potential

by change in pattern

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77

where is VEP

back of the head which receives information from fovea (center) of retina

can be used to estimate visual acuity

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78

peak of contrast sensitivity reaches adult value at

4 years old

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79

fully developed contrast sensitivity by

9 yrs old

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80

limitation on ___ & __ during 1st year of life due to immaturity of retina; particularly foveal cones

VA & CS

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81

vernier acuity

the smallest displacement of a line that can be detected

ability to align targets

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82

stereopsis is present at how old?

3-6 months old

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83

stereopsis matures rapidly at what age?

1 year old

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84

at what age does adult levels of stereopsis reach?

after age 5

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85

temporal vision

ability to detect high rates of flicker present at 1 month of age and reaches adult levels by 4 - 6 months

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86

night vision

rod sensitivity developed by 1st month; adult levels by 6 months of age

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87

color vision

basic red-green discrimination is present by 2nd month; adult levels by age 1

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88

T/F visual acuity development is limited by cone maturation during year 1

T

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89

T/F temporal & night vision do not fully develop until age 6

F

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90

T/F OKN, preferential looking and VEP's are all objective measures of VA

T

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91

T/F VEPs show better VA at an earlier age than other techniques

T

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92

T/F normal OKN ensures normal VA

F

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93

amblyopia

decreased vision, usually in one eye, due to visual deprivation during a critical period early in life

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94

blur AKA

anisometrpia

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95

misalignment AKA

strabismus

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96

occlusion AKA

cataract

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97

amblyopia can be mild (20/__) to severe (???)

20/25

perceives only light, not form

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98

animal and human studies indicate that amblyopia is due to...

an anomaly in the visual part of the brain (the visual cortex)

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99

amblyopia is not in the ____ nor in the ____ (___)

retina

mid-brain (LGN)

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100

early in life neurons from each eye compete for?

dominance of visual cortex

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