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Survey research

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549 Terms

1

Survey research

a nonexperimental research method relying on questionnaires or interview protocols

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Power

The probability of rejecting a false-null hypothesis.

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3

Sample

the set of cases selected from the population.

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4

Descriptive statistics

the type of statistical analysis focused on describing, summarising, or explaining a set of data.

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5

Qualitative research

the type of research relying on qualitative research data

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6

Single-case research design

research design in which a single participant or a single group of individuals is used to investigate the influence of a treatment condition.

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7

Quasi-experimental design

A research design in which an experimental procedure is applied but all extraneous variables are not controlled.

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8

Traditional Methods of Acquiring Knowledge

Intuition, Authority, Rationalism, Empiricism.

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9

Research design

The outline, plan, or strategy used to investigate the research problem.

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10

Research validity

Truthfulness of inferences made from a research study.

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11

Variable

A condition or characteristic that can take on different values or categories.

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12

Research ethics

A set of guidelines to assist the researcher in conducting ethical research.

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13

Theory

A statement or group of statements that explain "how" and "why" some part of the world works, and provides predictions about the world to be empirically tested.

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14

Experimental Research

The research approach in which one attempts to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating the independent variable.

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15

Differential influence

When the influence of an extraneous variable is different for the various groups.

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16

Weak experimental designs

Designs that do not control for many extraneous variables and provide weak evidence of cause and effect.

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17

Population

the full group to which one wants to generalise.

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18

Inferential statistics

the type of statistical analysis focused on making inferences about populations.

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19

Mixed methods research

type of research in which quantitative and qualitative data or approaches are combined in a single study.

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20

ABA design

a single-case design in which the response to the treatment condition is compared to baseline responses recorded before and after treatment.

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21

Design components

Structures and procedures used in constructing research designs.

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22

Effect size

The magnitude of the relationship between two variables in a population.

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23

Method of difference

If groups are equivalent on every variable except for one, then that one variable is the cause of the difference between the groups.

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24

Statistical conclusion validity

Validity of the inference made about whether the independent and dependent variables covary.

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25

Measurement

The assignment of symbols or numbers to something according to a set of rules.

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26

Research misconduct

Fabricating, falsifying, or plagiarising the proposing, performing, reviewing, or reporting of research results.

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27

PsycINFO

An electronic bibliographic database of abstracts and citations to the scholarly literature in psychology.

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28

Descriptive Research

Research that attempts to describe some phenomenon, event, or situation.

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29

Science - Assumptions

Uniformity, Reality, Discoverability

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30

cross-sectional study

data are collected during a single, brief time period.

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31

One-group posttest-only design

Administration of a posttest to a single group of participants after they have been given an experimental treatment condition.

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32

Statistic

a numerical index based on sample data.

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33

Data set

a set of data, where the rows are "cases"and the columns are "variables".

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34

Twelve Major Characteristics of Qualitative Research

  1. Naturalistic inquiry (design strategy)

  2. Emergent design flexibility (design strategy)

  3. Purposeful sampling (design strategy)

  4. Qualitative data (Data collection and Fieldwork strategy)

  5. Personal experience and engagement (Data collection and Fieldwork strategy)

  6. Empathic neutrality and mindfulness (Data collection and Fieldwork strategy)

  7. Dynamic systems (Data collection and Fieldwork strategy)

  8. Unique case orientation (Analysis strategy)

  9. Inductive analysis and creative synthesis (Analysis strategy)

  10. Holistic perspective (Analysis strategy)

  11. Context sensitivity (Analysis strategy)

  12. Voice, perspective, and reflexivity (Analysis strategy)

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35

Baseline

the target behaviour of the participant in its natrurally occurring state or prior to presentation of the treatment condition.

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36

Nonequivalent comparison group design

A quasi-experimental design in which the results obtained from nonequivalent experimental and control groups are compared.

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37

Postexperimental interview

An interview with the participant following completion of the experiment, during which all aspects of the experiment are explained and the participant is allowed to comment on the study.

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38

Randomisation

Control technique that equates groups of participants by ensuring every member an equal chance of being assigned to any group.

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39

Construct validity

Validity of the inference about the higher-order constructs from the operations used to represent them. The extent to which a construct is adequately represented by the measures used in a research study.

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40

Stevens' Four Scales of Measurement

Nominal, Used to name, categorise, or classify; Ordinal, Used to rank order objects or individuals; Interval, Used to rank order, plus has equal intervals or distances between adjacent numbers; Ratio, Fully quantitative, includes rank ordering, equal intervals, plus has an absolute zero point.

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41

Ethical dilemma

The investigator's conflict in weighing the potential cost to the participant against the potential gain to be accrued from the research project.

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42

Search engine

A software program that seeks out Web pages stored on servers throughout the World Wide Web.

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43

Quantitative Research Study

A research study that is based on numerical data.

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44

Science - Characteristics

Control, Operationalism, Replication.

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45

Longitudinal study

data are collected at two or more points in time.

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46

Random assignment

Randomly assigning a sample of individuals to a specific number of comparison groups.

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47

Parameter

a numerical characteristic of a population.

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48

Simpson's Paradox

where the aggregated data produces one conclusion, but disaggregated data produces an opposite, more accurate conclusion.

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49

Researcher bias

only noticing data that supports one's prior expectations.

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50

Reversal

change of behaviour back to baseline level after withdrawal of treatment.

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51

Selection bias

Because groups are nonequivalent, there will always be a potential selection bias. However, the pretest allows the exploration of the possible size and direction of the bias on any variables measured at pretesting.

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52

Pilot study

An experiment that is conducted on a few participants prior to the actual collection of data.

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53

Nominal scale

The use of symbols, such as words or numbers to classify or categorise measurement objects into groups or types.

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54

One-group pretest-posttest design

Design in which a treatment condition is interjected between a pretest and posttest of the dependent variable.

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55

Internal validity

Validity of the inference that the independent and dependent variables are causally related. The correctness of inferences made by researchers about cause and effect.

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56

Beneficence

Acting for the benefit of others.

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57

Research problem

An interrogative sentence that states the relationship between two variables.

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58

Numerical Data

Data consisting of numbers.

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59

Science - Role of Theory

Logic of Discovery, Logic of Justification.

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60

Panel studies

Longitudinal study where data are collected from the same individuals at successive time points.

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61

ABAB design

extension to ABA design to include reintroduction of the treatment condition.

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62

Selection-attrition bias

The pretest allows examination of the nature of attrition to see if there is a difference between those that drop out or do not complete the experiment and those that do.

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63

Matching

Using any of a variety of techniques for equating participants on one or more variables.

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64

Frequency distribution

data arrangement in which the frequencies of each unique data value is shown.

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65

Greek letters

used by statisticians to represent population parameters. (alpha, beta)

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66

Posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups

Design in which the performance of an experimental group is compared with that of a nonequivalent control group at the posttest.

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67

Reflexivity

Thinking critically about one's interpretations and biases.

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68

External validity

Validity of the inference about whether the causal relationship holds over people, settings, treatment variables, measurement variables, and time. Degree to which the study results can be generalised to and across other people, settings, treatments, outcomes, and times.

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69

Nonmaleficence

Do no harm to others.

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70

Specificity of the research question

The preciseness with which the research question is stated.

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71

Trend study

independent samples are taken successively from a population over time and the same questions are asked.

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72

Qualitative Research Study

A research study based on nonnumerical data.

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73

Science - Role of Scientist

Curiosity, Patience, Objectivity, Change

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74

Ordinal scale

A rank order measurement scale

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75

RCT (Randomised Controlled Trial)

Experimental design with random assignment to experimental and control groups.

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76

Roman letters

used by statisticians to represent sample statistics. (a,b,c..)

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77

Bar graph

graph that uses vertical bars to represent the data values of a categorical variable.

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78

Negative-case sampling

searching for cases that challenge one's expectations or one's current findings

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79

Withdrawal

removal of the treatment condition

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80

Selection-maturation bias

This might exist if one group of participants becomes more experienced, tired, or bored than those in the other group.

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81

Statistical conclusion validity

The validity of inferences made about the covariation between the independent and dependent variables.

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82

Matching variable

The extraneous variable used in matching.

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83

Interval scale

A scale of measurement with equal intervals of distance between adjacent numbers.

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84

Informed consent

Informing the research participant of all aspects of the study that might influence his or her willingness to volunteer to participate.

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85

Hypothesis

The best prediction or a tentative solution to a problem.

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86

Nonnumerical Data

Data that consists of pictures, words, statements, clothing, written records or documents, or a description of situations and behaviour.

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87

Science - Objectives

Describe, Explain, Predict, Control.

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88

Survey instrument

data collection instrument used in survey research such as a questionnaire or interview protocol.

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89

Statistical control

Control of measured extraneous variables during data analysis.

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90

Sampling distribution

the theoretical probability distribution of the values of a statistic that would result if you selected all possible samples of a particular size from a population.

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91

Descriptive validity

the factual accuracy of the account reported by the researcher

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92

Reversal design

a design in which the treatment condition is applied to an alternative but incompatible behaviour so that a reversal in behaviour is produced.

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93

Selection-instrumentation bias

This might exist if the nonequivalent groups of participants start at different points on the pretest, particularly if the measuring instrument does not have equal intervals.

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94

Control group

The group of participants that does not receive the active treatment condition and serves as a standard of comparison for determining whether the treatment condition produced any causal effect.

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95

Histogram

graph depicting frequencies and distribution of a quantitative variable.

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96

Statistically significant

The observed relationship is probably not due to chance.

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97

Assent

Agreement from a minor to participate in research after receiving an age-appropriate explanation of the study.

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98

Research hypothesis

The predicted relationship among the variables being investigated.

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99

Variable

A characteristic or phenomenon that can vary across or within organisms, situations, or environments.

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100

Intuition

Intuition occurs when one feels the have direct knowledge or insight but cannot state any observation or reason for the knowledge.

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