Phlebotomy Exam 2

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ancillary blood glucose test

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1

ancillary blood glucose test

bedside test to determine blood glucose levels, performed by dermal puncture

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2

bleeding time test

Test that measures the length of time required for bleeding to stop after an incision is made

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3

bilirubin, uric acid, phosphorus, and potassium (BURPP)

group of tests that may be elevated by use of povidone-iodine

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4

bilirubin

substance produced by the normal breakdown of red blood cells that may accumulate in the blood

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5

calcaneus

heel bone

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6

capillary tubes

small plastic tube used primarily for hematocrit tests

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7

iatorgenic anemia

anemia caused by excessive blood draws

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8

microcollection tube

small tube used to collect dermal puncture samples, also called a "bullet"

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9

osteochondritis

painful inflammation of the bone or catilage

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10

osteomyelitis

bone infection

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11

venous thrombosis

formation of a blood clot within a vein

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12

Lasette laser lancing device

a device unique that uses a laser, rather than a sharp instrument, to pierce the skin which causes less pain and bruising

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13

compartment syndrome

condition in which collection of fluid in a confined space prevents blood flow

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14

edema

swelling that is caused when interstitial fluid is retained in the tissue

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15

emesis

nausea and vomiting

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16

hemolysis

destruction of red blood cells

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17

lymphostasis

lack of movement of lymph fluid

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18

occluded

blocked

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19

preanalytical variables

variable that occurs before performing analysis of the specimen

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20

reflux

flow of blood from the collection tube back into the needle and then into the patient's vein

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21

sclerosed

hardened

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22

syncope

fainting

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23

arterial blood gas testing

Determines the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in the blood and measures the pH.

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24

collateral circulation

meaning it receives blood from more than one artery

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25

radial artery

supplying the hand, artery of choice; has good collateral collection and easily accessible

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26

brachial artery

large, easy to palpate and puncture. Located in the antecubital fossa below the basilic vein near the insertion of the biceps muscle

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27

femoral artery

largest artery used, located in the groin area about the thigh, lateral to the pubic bone. Used when other sites are unavailable

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28

modified allen test

most common method used to assess the adequecy of collateral circulation in the radial artery

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29

arteriospasm

the spontaneous constriction of an artery in response to pain. may close the artery, preventing oxygen from reaching tissue

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30

embolism

blood vessel obstruction caused by an air bubble or dislodged clot in the artery. can cause arterial occlusion (blockage) leading to loss of blood flow

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31

hematoma

resulting from inadequate pressure on the site. more likely in elderly patients, whose artery walls are not as elastic and thus as not as likely to close spontaneously

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32

hemorrhage

more likely in patients who have coagulation disorders or are recieving anticoagulant therapy (heparin or warfarin)

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33

infection

from skin contaminants. contaminants easily carried to the rest of the body without encountering the immune system

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34

nerve damage

caused by inadvertent contact with a nerve. this is more likely during arterial puncture than venipuncture because the needle passes more deeply into the tissue

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35

lipemic sample

serum or plasma appear turbid

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36

flea

metal filing used to mix blood with additives in small tubes

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37

hyperventilation

rapid, shallow breathing

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38

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in blood

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39

partial pressure of oxygen

amount of oxygen dissolved in the blood

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40

respiratory steady state

State required for arterial blood gas collection, in which blood gas concentrations are steady

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41

umbilical artery

artery used for arterial collection in infants

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42

accession number

unique identifying number used for cataloging a sample in the laboratory

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43

aerosol

mist of droplets

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44

aliquots

portion of a sample

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45

analytes

substance being analyzed

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46

centrifuge

separation of components of a sample based on density by using a machine that spins a sample at a very high speed

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47

pneumatic tube system

sample transport system in which samples are carried in a sealed container within a network of tubes

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48

jaundice

yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood

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49

neonatal screening

used to detect inherited metabolic disorders that cause severe brain damage or other impairments

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50

sickle cell anemia

inherited disorder of the hemoglobin molecule may also be screened

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51

arterial line

vascular access device that is placed in an artery for continuous monitoring of blood pressure or frequent collection of samples for blood gas testing

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52

arteriovenous (AV) shunt

artificial connection between an artery and a vein

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53

Bili light

ultraviolet light treatment for elevated bilirubin

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54

Biotinidase deficiency

inherited metabolic disorder

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55

broviac

type of central venous catheter

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56

central venous catheter

most common vascular device, inserted into one of the large veins emptying into the heart

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57

external arteriovenous shunt

AV shunt consisting of a cannula with a rubber septum through which a needle may be inserted for drawing blood

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58

fistula

permanent internal connection between an artery and vein

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59

galactosemia

recessive genetic disorder: characterized by body's inability to tolerate galactose

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60

groshong

a type of central venous catheter

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61

heparin lock

tube temporarily placed in a peripheral vein; used to administer medicine and draw blood

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62

Hickman

a type of central venous catheter

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63

homocystinuria

A disorder of methionine metabolism, leading to an abnormal accumulation of homocysteine and its metabolites (homocystine, homocysteine-cysteine complex, and others) in blood and urine.

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64

Hypothryoidism

condition caused by too little secretion of thyroid hormones

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65

implanted port

chamber located under the skin and connected to an indwelling line

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66

internal arteriovenous shunt

AV shunt consisting of a fistula that uses the patient's tissue, a piece of bovine tissue, or a synthetic tube

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67

Kernicterus

brain damage caused by bilirubin entering the brain

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68

maple syrup disease

Deficiency of α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase

Responsible for the degradation of branched amino acids (Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine).

Presents with Urine that smells like maple syrup and severe CNS defects.

Treatment: restriction of I, L V amino acids and must give thiamine (vit. B1) supplementation

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69

peripherally inserted central catheter

a vascular access device threaded into a central vein after insertion into a peripheral (non-central) vein.

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70

phenylketonuria

a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing

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71

vascular access device

tube that is inserted into either a vein or an artery; used to administer fluids or medications, monitor blood pressure, or draw blood

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72

aerobic bacteria

bacteria that need oxygen

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73

agglutination

sticking together

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74

anaerobic bacteria

bacteria that live without oxygen

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75

bacteriemia

blood infection by a bacterium

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76

basal state

the body's state after 12 hours of fasting and abstention from strenuous exercise

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77

blood culture

test for the presence of microorganisms in the blood

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78

chain of custody

protocol that ensures the sample is always in the custody of a person legally entrusted to be in control of it

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79

chlorohexide gluconate

preferred antiseptic for blood culture

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80

cold agglutinations

an antibody often formed in response to infection with mycoplasma pneumoniae

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81

Cryofibrinogen

Abnormal type of fibrogen that precipitates when cold

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82

cryoglobulin

Abnormal serum protein that precipitates when cold

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83

differential count

determinations of the proportions of the various blood cell types

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84

diurnal variation

normal daily fluctuations in body chemistry related to hormonal cycles, sleep-wake cycles, and other regular patterns of change

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85

epinephrine tolerance test

Test that determines the patient's ability to mobilize glycogen from the liver in response to a dose of the hormone epinephrine

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86

fasting specimen

Specimen drawn after a 12-hour complete fast

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87

feathered edge

blood smear characteristic in which cells farther from the original drop appear to thin out

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88

fever of unknown origin (FUO)

fever without a known cause

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89

gestational diabetes

a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies

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90

glucagon tolerance test

test that determines the patient's ability to mobilize glycogen from the liver in response to a dose of the hormone glucagon

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91

half-life

the time for half the ingested amount of drug to be metabolized

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92

hemoglobin A1c

a blood protein used to track long-term blood sugar levels

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93

Hereditary Hemochromatosis

excessive iron in the blood

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94

hyperglycemia

high level of blood sugar (glucose)

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95

hypoglycemia

low level of blood sugar (glucose)

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96

lactose tolerance test

Test that determines whether the lactose-digesting enzyme lactase is present in the gut

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97

oral glucose tolerance test

Test for diabetes mellitus

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98

peak level

highest serum level of a drug

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99

Polycythemia

excessive production of red blood cells

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100

sepsis

bacterial infection

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