APUSH Ch. 29: A time of Upheaval

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Richard Nixon

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135 Terms


Richard Nixon

  • Vice President under Eisenhower

  • Won Presidency in the 1968 and 1972 elections

  • Ended US involvement in Vietnam

  • Legacy is marked with public disrespect for politics

  • First president to resign

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A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon

  • Mainly used with China and the Soviet Union

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The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.

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5 million

Number of American students pursuing a higher education went from 1 million to _______

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Over half

How much of the US population was under the age of 30 by the 1960s?

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The entire Baby-Boom generation

Who was selected by Time Magazine as the "Man of the Year" in 1967?

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Baby Boomers

  • Sought a secure place in the system, but not its overthrow

  • beer to drugs, football to political demonstrations

  • Wanted a good salary, and a new car

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Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)

  • 1970, boasted 50,000 members (more than any other group)

  • Idolized Barry Goldwater

  • Embodied traditional values and anticommunism

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New Left

New political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism

  • Welcomed the idealism of the civil-rights movement

  • Supported the campaign against nuclear testing

  • Answered President Kennedy's call for service to the nation

  • Helped to liberalize many facets of campus life

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Port Huron Statement

A manifesto by Students for a Democratic Society that criticized institutions ranging from political parties to corporations, unions, and the military-industrial complex, while offering a new vision of social change.

  • Proclaimed themselves "a new left'

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Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

Founded in 1962, was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War.

  • Envisioned a nonviolent youth movement transforming the US into a participator democracy

  • Led thousands of campus protests

  • Split apart at the end of the 1960s.

  • Supported draft resistence and civil disobedience in selective service centers

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Berkeley Free Speech Movement (FSM)

Coalition of student groups that insisted on the right to campus political activity

  • Fought with sit-ins and strikes by the student body

  • Students initiated a wave of protest seeking greater involvement in university affairs

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Mario Savio

Founder of the Free Speech Movement

  • said "when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick to heart, you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels... and you've got to make the machine stop until we're free"

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Ronald Reagan

  • Vowed to "Clean up the mess at Berkeley" while running for governor in 1966

  • Called Hippies those who "look like Tarzan, walked like Jane, and smelled like Cheetah"

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Make Love - Not War

A popular slogan and chant of young people opposed to the conflict in Vietnam

  • Popularized by the SDS

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Dow Chemical Company

Chief producer of napalm and Agent Orange

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Highly flammable chemical dropped from US planes in firebombing attacks during the Vietnam War.

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Agent Orange

a toxic leaf-killing chemical sprayed by U.S. planes in Vietnam to expose Vietcong hideouts

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Columbia University

Where did a student strike by the SDS demand an end to military research projects, and the Students' Afro-American Society insist on the end of construction of a new gymnasium?

  • "Gym Crow must go"

  • 1,000 students barricaded themselves inside 5 campus buildings and declared them "revolutionary communes" (held them for 6 days)

  • Police retook the building by storm which prompted a student led sympathy boycott, which shut down the school

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Satelite technology; Portable video cameras

What made it easy to instantly transmit student uprisings in one nation to atudents around the globe?

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New Mobilization

  • Movement against the Vietnam War A series of anti war demonstrations culminating in mid-November with a March Against Death

  • 300,000 protesters descended on Washington to march in a candle-lit parade

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Where did the US invade on April 30, 1970?

  • Jolted a war-weary US and reawakened student protest

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Kent State University

An Ohio university where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4, 1970, wounding eleven and killing four

  • students had broken windows, and torched the ROTC building

  • Nixon branded students "bums", VP compared them to Nazi storm troopers, and Ohio gov slapped martial law on the university

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Martial law

Type of rule in which the military is in charge and citizens' rights are suspended

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Jackson State

Mississippi university where two students were killed in 1970 by state police during a protest of the Vietnam War

  • Fired into a womens' dormitory,

  • Led to more than 400 colleges and universities shutting down from students refusing to attend classes

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University of Wisconsin

(1970) University where an antiwar radical planted a bomb, destroying a science building and accidentally killing a graduate student

  • Led most to deplore the tactic

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Fad of racing across campus in the nude

  • More popular in the 1920s than the 1960s

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Conscription System

Mandated enlistment of people into a national service

  • Nixon was significantly reducing the draft calls and the system was soon to be ended, therefore reducing the need for protest on the topic

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Young people who rebelled against the mainstream culture of the 1960s

  • disdained consumerism, preferring to make things themselves and share it with others

  • tried not to want what they didn't have

  • experiment with drugs, mysticism, and uninhibited sexuality

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Counter Culture

A culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture.

  • What Theodore Roszack called the 1960s' youngsters

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A plant whose leaves, buds, and flowers are usually smoked for their intoxicating effects

  • at least half of college students in the 1960s tried it

  • seen as a "Killer weed" or a harmless social relaxant

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a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)

  • "tune in, tune out, drop out"

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intense frenzy in the 1960s towards the Beatles

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Woodstock Festival

1969 music festival attended by four hundred thousand young people in 1969 to celebrate their vision of freedom and harmony.

  • Held in New York's Catskill Mountains

  • Lasted a weekend

  • Called the dawning of an era of love and peace or T

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Age of Aquarius

Name of the "Hippie" era, known for the dawning of an era of love and peace

  • Marked by rock n roll music, outrageous clothing, sexual freedom, and illegal drugs

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The pill

gave women greater freedom to be sexually active without the risk of pregnancy

  • oral contraceptive

  • 10,000,000 women were taking by 1970 (appeared in 1960)

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Roe vs. Wade

the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right to privacy, which includes a woman's decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.

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The Joy of Sex (1972)

a "Gourmet Guide to love Making"

  • Became a fixture in middle-class befrooms

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Living together without being married

  • Became more accepted to middle-class americans

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Open Marraige

a marital relationship in which the couple agrees that it is permissible to have sexual relations outside of the marriage

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a type of open marriage relationship in which a couple has extramarital relations together with other couples

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Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

a federal agency designed to regulate and enforce the provisions of Title VII

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Title VII

Forbids discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, or national origin in all areas of the employment relationship

  • Part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

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National Organization for Women (NOW)

Founded in 1966

  • Called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women

  • Championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution

  • Also wanted ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion

  • established health collectives and shelters for abused women

  • Created day-care centers and rape crisis centers

  • Founded abortion-counseling services and women studies programs

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Betty Friedan

1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique"

  • "the problem with no name" was seen as women giving up their own aspirations for the needs of men

  • Urged women to pursue careers that would establish their independent identity

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conciousness raising

the activity of seeking to make people more aware of personal, social, or political issues

  • Especially used in the 2nd feminist movement

  • Women would assemble in small groups and share experiences and air grievances

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What did radical feminist crown Miss America in 1968?

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Freedom trash cans

Tactic used during the Miss America Pageant Protest by NOW

  • Women could use them to discard girdles, make-up, and other "women-garbage"

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Women's Strike for Equality (1970)

More than 20,000 women gathered to parade for the right to equal employment and safe, legal abortions.

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Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes

  • Passed both houses of Congress in 1972 and gained 28/38 of the necessary states within a year

  • Didn't pass thanks to Phyllis Schlafly (was a woman)

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Title IX

Prohibited educational institutions that received federal funds from discriminating on the basis of sex

  • Part of the Education Amendments Act

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Phyllis Schlafly

1970s new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor

  • Demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s

  • Led the "STOP ERA" campaign

  • Accused feminism as being self-centered

  • Used "The Phyllis Schlafly Report" to advocate her cause

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Stonewall Inn Riot

Where a violent demonstration against a police raid that took place on June 28, 1969, broke out

  • This was the first instance in American history when people in the homosexual community fought back government-sponsored systems that persecuted sexual minorities

  • Triggered a spurge of "gay pride"

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Gay Pride

A new sense of identity, self-acceptance, and widespread activism in the LGBTQ+ community

  • A positive way to fight against discrimination and violence towards LGBT people

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American Psychological Association (APA)

What organization in 1973 officially ended its classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder?

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National Gay Task Force (1973)

Organization that demanded the repeal of anti-gay laws and passage of legislation protecting homosexuals' civil rights

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Earth Day

A day created in 1970 about celebrating and caring for the Earth

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Cleveland's Cuyahoga River; Lake Erie

What two water sources were contaminated by decades of toxic chemical dumping and brought to light in the 1970s?

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Santa Barbara

Where were the coast fouled by a massive oil spill?

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Sierra Club

America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892

  • Pushed by the wealthy because they wanted to conserve the nature for their later generations

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Audubon Society

Society created in 1905 and named after John James Audubon designed to protect wild birds from over-hunting

  • This was the first society of conservationism led by Roosevelt

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Greenpeace; Friends of the Earth

What 2 new environmentalism groups were founded in the 1970s to work against threat to ecological balance

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Organization that enforced health and safety standards in the workplace

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Enviornmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Organization that required federal agencies to prepare an environmental-impact analysis for all proposed projects

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Three Mile Island

1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius

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Me Decade

1969-1978, an era obsessed with personal well-being and emotional security

  • Characterized by health foods, diet crazes, a mania for physical fitness, and a quest for happiness through therapy

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Looking Out for Number One

Book written by Robert Ringer that embodied the "Me Decade"

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Term for "young urban professionals" of the 1980s who flaunted their wealth through conspicuous consumer spending

  • Restored rundown inner-city apartments through gentrification

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James Earl Ray

Convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail

  • Martain was shot on a motel balcony in Memphis, Tennessee

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Hubert Humphrey

The democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968.

  • LBJ's vice president, and was supportive of his Vietnam policies

  • This support split the Democratic party, allowing Nixon to win the election for the Republicans

  • Got the nomination with the assassination of Kennedy

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Eugene McCarthy

1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.

  • Remained the candidate for "new politics" - moral crusade against war and injustice directed to affluent, educated liberals

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Robert Kennedy

He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals.

  • Ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but eradicating hope in many Americans.

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Sirhan Sirhan

Assassinated Robert Kennedy on June 6, 1968 in Chicago after hearing pro-Israeli remarks of Kennedy's victory statement in the California primaries.

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Richard M. Nixon (1969-1974)

Elected the 37th President of the United States (1969-1974)

  • Successfully ended American fighting in Vietnam and improved international relations with the U.S.S.R. and China

  • Became the only President to ever resign the office, as a result of the Watergate scandal

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Richard Daley

Who tried to avoid rioting in Chicago by denying demonstrators permits to march or engage in protest and gave police the green light to attack "the hippies, the yuppies, and the flippies"?

  • August 28, audiences watched bluecoats club demonstrators, toss tear gas at bystanders, and bloody reporters and photographers

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states in the south and southwest that have a warm climate and tend to be politically conservative

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Silent Majority

A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960s

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The Apollo 11 Lunar module the descended to the Sea of Tranquility on July 21, 1969

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Niel Armstrong

First man to walk on the moon

  • "That's one small step for man, on giant leap for mankind"

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Family Assistance Plan (FAP)

Welfare-reform proposal, approved by the House of Representatives in 1970 but defeated in the Senate

  • Would have guaranteed an income to welfare recipients who agreed to undergo job training and to accept work

  • Proposed a guaranteed minimum annual income for all Americans

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a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)

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A word used by Democrats critical of Republican President Richard Nixon's to describe his economic policies, in particular the inability to curb inflation at a time of high unemployment and recession

  • In 1969 the budget deficit was $25 billion with an inflation rate of 5% so Nixon cut gov spending and encouraged the Federal Reserve Board to raise interest rates

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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Group of Third World nations that joined together to set production levels and prices

  • Launched an embargo that raised the price of crude oil

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Southern Strategy

Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party

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Someone who lives in the suburbs outside from the city

  • Kevin Phillips called them "in motion between a Democratic past and a Republican future"

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To combat militants he despised

Why did Nixon have the IRS audit tax returns, Small business Administration deny loans, and the National Security Agency illegally wiretap?

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Huston Plan (1970)

What would use the CIA and FBI in various illegal activities

  • wiretapping, break-ins to gather/plant evidence

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J. Edgar Hoover

The director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation who opposed the Huston Plan but was shut down

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The Plumbers

A secret group created by Nixon that worked to plug government leaks to the press and undermine opposition

  • Headed by G. Gordon Liddy (Former FBI) and E. Howard Hunt (Former CIA)

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Pentagon Papers

Government documents that showed the public had been lied to about the status of the war in Vietnam

  • Were leaked to the press

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Daniel Ellsberg

Former employee of the Defense Department who gave the New York Times the "Pentagon Papers"

  • Became the first target of "the plumbers"

  • Seen as a hero to the antiwar movement

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1965 Voting Rights Act

Act that suspended the use of literacy tests and authorized the appointment of federal examiners who could order the registration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50% were registered, or voted previously.

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Fair Housing Act (1968)

The federal law that prohibits discrimination in housing based on race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, and national origin

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Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

Court case that approved busing and redrawing district lines as ways of integrating public schools

  • Nixon asked for a moratorium on busing and the act

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Warren Burger

The Supreme Court justice during the Nixon administration

  • Chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution

  • He presided over the extremely controversial case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.

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Spiro T. Agnew

Nixon's vice-president who ultimately resigned and paid a fee due to financial charges

  • Helped Nixon gain votes from his moderate, immigrant, and Democratic state background.

  • Later pleaded guilty to the Watergate Scandal and charges of income tax evasion and solicitation of bribes

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Political realism or practical politics, especially policy based on power rather than on ideals.

  • Stressed national interest rather than ethical goals

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Henry Kissinger

The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese

  • Secretary of state during Nixon's presidency

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Sino-Soviet Split

A rift in the 1960s between the communist powers of the Soviet Union and china, fueled by China's opposition to Soviet moves toward peaceful coexistence with the US

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Where did Nixon travel to help appease hostility in 1972?

  • First sitting president to go to the nation

  • Ended more than 20 years of hostilities between the US and the nation

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