Studied by 1 person

0.0(0)

Get a hint

Hint

1

population dynamics is…

population is an important unit of organization

basic unit w management and conservation

New cards

2

population definitions

a group of individuals of one species that live in a particular geographic area

a collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular species

New cards

3

tell four basic population dynamic processes

New cards

4

why defining the unit is important

bc it will affect the unit / manner of management

bc it will affect the status of the population

New cards

5

evolutionary significant unit (ESU)

from salmon managment

commonly used for the purpose of conservation of “protected species”

New cards

6

Distinct population segment (DPS)

language in Endangered Species Act

smallest unit of species to be protected under ESA

New cards

7

Stock

unit of management in fisheries

the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

New cards

8

State Variables

variables that represent the state of a population

New cards

9

population dynamics (definition)

changes in the state of a population

New cards

10

what are the state variables

measures of the state of the population

population abundance

population density (number of individuals per unit area)

biomass

incidence (presence-absence)

New cards

11

Vital rates

facts that change population abundance

New cards

12

what are the vital rates

birth

death

immigration

emigration

New cards

13

Constant per-capita birth rate

number of offspring born and survive between time t and t+1 per individual parent

assume no immigration and no emigration

b (in equation)

New cards

14

Constant per=capita death rate

a portion of individuals alive at time t dying before t+1

rate of death of individuals from time t to time t+1

d (in equation)

New cards

15

geometric growth equation

n(t+1) = lambdan(1)

New cards

16

per-population meaning

2.2

New cards

17

natural log of density changes w geometric growth

grows (declines) linearly ( straight line )

New cards

18

constant number or birth rates + constant number of death rates =

geometric growth/decline

New cards

19

finite per-capita population growth rate

lambda

lambda > 1 = geometric growth

lambda = 1 pop. density remains the same

1>lambda>(-) = geometric decline

New cards

20

fertility term

fecundity (# of offspring per adult) x Offspring survival until age 1

New cards

21

lifecycle graph

circle/node = age class

arrows = potential transitions of individuals from t to t+1

solid: aging/death

dashed: reproduction / fecundity per parent c the survival of the offspring over one time unit

New cards

22

how to read/label a(ij)

contribution of age class J to age class I

OG age class is second script

New cards

23

how to deal with females and males in a model

New cards

24

how to write a matrix w a(ij)

first subscript = row on matrix

second subscript = column in matrix

New cards

25

vector

matrix with one column

New cards

26

matrix

3 x 3 matrix

New cards

27

scalar

a matrix with one row and one column (n)

New cards

28

ordinary product

multiplication of matrix and vector product

New cards

29

component of a vector

each parameter/variable in a vector

New cards

30

element of a matrix

each parameter/variable in a matrix (vital rates)

location is indicated by 2 numbers (i,j)

New cards

31

how to multiply matrices

row 1 and column 1 x row 1 and column 1

row 1 and column 2 x row 2 and column 1

etc

only matrices of same size can be multiplied

number of columns of a matrix and the number of components of a vector must be the same

New cards

32

how to refer to an elemet of matrix (indices)

New cards

33

how to multiply a popultion matrix and population vector

n(t+1) = An(t) (?)

New cards

34

how to enter transition rates into a population matrix

a(ij)

i = the row

j = the column

New cards

35

population vector

the ith component of the vector is the number/density of individuals in the ith stage

the number of components is the same as the number of age classes in the model

New cards

36

when does the natural log of population density grows/declines linearly with time?

when the elements of a population matrix are constant over time = expo. growth

New cards

37

what happens to a population when per-capita rates are constant ?

geometric / exponential growth

New cards

38

what is the difference between transient and asymptotic dynamics when vital rates are constant?

asymptotic = population grows/declines exponentially (here all stages have the same slope w same rate)

transient = each stage grows/declines exponentially after some transient period.

New cards

39

difference between state variables and vital rates ?

New cards

40

what’s asymptotic per-capita population growth rate ?

each stage density grows geometrically and the coefficient is the same for all stages

New cards

41

describe stable stage (age) distribution

under asymptotic dynamics, distribution of individuals amongst stage remains constant

New cards

42

differences in the characteristics of lifecycle graphs associated with lesilie matrix (age structured) and lefkovitch mitch (stage structured)

leslie matrix:

age progress w time

lefkovitch mitch:

assume age is a special type of stage

stage does not necessarily progress w time

can remain in same stage for years (self-loops)

both have asymptotic population growth rate and stable stage distribution (properties are the same)

New cards

43

how to draw lifecycle graphs for stage-structured populations

time unit is the same for all

they are stages that can hold multiple ages

New cards

44

how to write population matrix for stage-structured population

just know

New cards

45

3 things you can calculate from constant population projection matrix

asymptotic population growth rate (lambda)

stable stage distribution (w)

reproductive value (v)

New cards

46

stable stage distribution

where the proportion of individuals in each stage remains constant

New cards

47

reproductive value

measures relative expected contribution of individuals in different stages to future population abundance

denoted by vector v

New cards

48

difference between reproductive value and fertility

fertility = contributions of individuals in the present

reproductive value = measure of future potential asymptotic contribution of individuals

New cards

49

what is sensitivity ?

how sensitive lambda is to changes in population parameters aka transition rates

shows measures of how important vital rates are to the asymptotic population growth rate

New cards

50

be able to calculate sensitivity from stable stage distribution and reproductive values

W = stable stage distribution // V = reproductive value

vw (T) / v (T)w

New cards

51

interpret the sensitivity results

use (i,j) to see how sensitive lamda is to a(ij)

the ith row of the sensitivity matrix is high if the “reproductive value” of a stage i is high

the jth column of the sensitivity matrix is high if the stable stage distribution of stage j is high

New cards

52

loggerhead sea turtles basic info:

5 stages:

eggs

small juveniles

large juveniles

subadults

adults

more younger individuals in the population

reproductive value of older individuals is high

we should allocate more effort to protect juveniles

New cards

53

how is sensitivity matrix related to reproductive value and stable stage distribution

the product of reproductive value and stable stage distribution is the sensitivity matrix

New cards

54

high sensitivity

if the sensitivity of lamda is to a(ij) is high

relatively large number of individuals is in stage j and or

reproductive value of stage i is high

New cards

55

instantaneous population growth rate:

the natural log of the finite population growth rate (lambda)

instantaneous and finite population growth rates are both per-capita population growth rates

New cards

56

what affects vital rates (transition rates) ?

lack of food

habitat deterioration

human interventions (e.g conservation activity)

New cards

57

describe the steps in conducting matrix population model analysis?

New cards

58

v =

reproductive value

New cards

59

w =

stable stage distribution

New cards

60

simpsons paradox

a trend appears in several groups of data but disappears or reverses when the groups are combined

New cards

61

difference between longitudinal data and census data

longitudinal data: the individual capture-recaptured data are a type data collected

identified individuals are followed over time

census data: just count individuals

New cards

62

meaning of 95% confidence intervals

if we repeat the analysis, the estimated value is expected to fall within the confidence intervals 95% of the time

New cards

63

the cause of increased morality of north atlantic right whales

individuals are dying with a higher stage specific per-capita mortality rate

changes in vital rates

collision with ships

New cards

64

the 4 qualities calculated from the population matrix

growth rate

reproductive values

stable stage

sensitivity matrix

New cards

65

why a population growing in its abundance can have a reduced survival rate?

because stage distribution may be different

because the population may consist of more individuals in a stage with lower survival rate

New cards

66

elasticity

how lambda changes from proportional changes in transition rates a(ij)

New cards

67

what is the shape of a graph representing population abundance if the same proportion 0.3 of individuals ( 30% ) dies and each individual in the population contributes to the birth of 0.2 individuals on average and these per-capita rates remain constant ( the same ) ?

exponentially decreasing density

New cards

68

shape of the graph representing population density of both per capita birth rate and per. capita death rates are constant over time?

exponentially increasing density

New cards

69

which one of these statements are not true ?

there is no variable in statistical analysis

New cards

70

the proportional of individuals died over one year is 0.8. this value represents

per capita death/mortality rate

New cards

71

geometric/exponential growth results from

constant per-capita survival and per-capita birth rate

New cards

72

why do we need to structure a population based on age?

bc survival rate may be different among age classes and bc reproductive rate may be different among age classes

New cards

73

a(21)

the first number = the destination / the row

the second number = the OG / the column

New cards

74

the first step to build a population matrix

to draw a lifecycle graph

New cards

75

the size of leslie matrix for a population is determined by

the oldest individuals in the population

New cards

76

the number of rows of leslie matrix and the number of component of an associated population vector must be the same

true

New cards

77

which is the correct way of multiplying a population matrix and population vector

nt+1 = Ant

New cards

78

( lambda ) weird Y

represents population growth rate

New cards

79

if all of the per capita rates ( birth rate, death rate, developmental rate ) are constant over time, population density should change

exponentially with time

New cards

80

the asymptomatic population growth rate and stable stage distribution are the properties of age-structured populations but they are not the properties of stage - structured population?

false

New cards

81

sensitivity in the matrix population model analysis measures how sensitive lambda is to the same magnitude changes in vital rates whereas the elasticity measures how sensitive lambda is to the same proportional changes in vital rates

true

New cards

82

in each experiment, we start with the same number of individuals in each stage and introduce two additional individuals either adults or juveniles. on average which will have the greater number of individuals in the future?

both populations

New cards

83

what does lambda = .95 imply?

the population is expected to decrease by 5% per year on average

New cards

84

why does stage 2 have a greater number of individuals than stage 1 ?

bc stage 2 includes multiple age classes

New cards

85

why does stage 5 loggerhead sea turtles have high relative reproductive value?

bc stage 5 have high survival rate

bc stages 1-3 have low survival rate

bc stage 5 has high fecundity

New cards

86

according to the figure, which of the following is expected to make the population to start growing?

50% reduction in mortality of large juveniles

New cards

87

what does reproductive value measure?

relative contribution of individuals in a given stage to future population abundance

New cards

88

according to the sensitivity matrix, which parameter has the most impact on the asymptotic population growth rate?

a (43)

New cards

89

you administer medication to individuals and keep track of their symptoms/fate over time ( a record for each individual is kept ) the data are

longitudinal data

New cards

90

the average survival rate for population can be decline when a population abundance is increasing (assuming no immigration and emigration)

TRUE

New cards

91

case mortality rate appears to be declining. it is still plausible that that disease is becoming worse ( according to simspons paradox ) bc

more younger people ( who previously did not develop symptoms before ) are developing symptoms and they tend to recover.

New cards

92

population is

a group of individuals of one species that live in a particular geographic area

New cards

93

semelparous means

individuals reproduce at most once in their life time

New cards

94

suppose a population of frogs consisted of 100 individuals on March 1, 2021 and 94 individuals on April 2021. We know there was no birth. we also know there is no immigration and emigration because the population is isolated. Which of the following is the best answer?

The monthly mortality rate was 0.06

New cards

95

suppose X=500-Ns where Ns is the variable in the script. what is X Suppose you survey deer in national park ( all of the individuals in population is in the park ) and count how many individuals died in a given year. the total number of death is

not sufficient information to calculate a per-capita annual death rate

New cards

96

which of the following is correct

individuals can start reproducing at age 4, and some individuals can live beyond age 5

New cards

97

fertility rate for matrix population model is

the product of fecundity per parent and the survival rate of offspring

New cards

98

lifecycle graph tells

number of stage/age classes and how individuals can be transition among them

New cards

99

why does population density fluctuate over time ?

is it because vital rates are not constant

New cards

100

which of the following is correct

x(1) = a11n1 + a12n2+a13n3

New cards