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Liberalism

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228 Terms

1

Liberalism

A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights and liberties of citizens and representative government

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2

Collectivism

giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly

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3

Individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes

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4

Thomas Hobbes

Believed that there should be absolute rule by kings to avoid mob rule and violence, famously wrote the Leviathan

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5

John Locke

17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property

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6

Voltaire

French philosopher and writer who believed strongly in freedom of speech, and was a critic of absolutism and the church

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7

Rousseau

believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society

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8

Montesquieu

French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive, legislative and judicial powers

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9

Legislative Branch

the branch of government that makes the laws

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10

Executive Branch

the branch of government that carries out laws

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11

Judicial Branch

Branch of government that interprets if laws are carried out fairly

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12

John Stuart Mill

English philosopher and economist remembered for his harm principle and utilitarianism

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13

Harm Principle

the actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals

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14

Laissez

faire economics

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15

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism

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16

invisible hand

term economists use to describe the self

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17

First Industrial Revolution

beginning in Great Britain in the 1780s, which gave rise to textiles, railroads, iron, and coal

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18

Social Darwinism

The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle

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19

Luddites

group of workers who broke into factories and destroyed machinery in Nottingham

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20

Chartism

A program of political reforms sponsored by British workers in the late 1830s, advocated for constitutional changes

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21

Utopian Socialism

ideal society based on socialist ideals, based on More's Utopia

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22

Thomas More

English humanist that wrote the book Utopia, which had a belief in humanitarian support for all

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23

Robert Owen

Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities, most famously in New Lanark, Scotland

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24

Edmund Burke

British MP and philosopher who believed in a system governed by the elites, was the founder of Conservatism

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25

New Poor Law

1834 law in the UK which put those requiring social welfare into workhouses, essentially criminalized poverty

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26

Combinations Act

British law which outlawed unions and strikes at the start of the 1800s

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27

Peterloo Massacre

1819

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28

Factory Act

1833

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29

Mines Act

1842

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30

Division of Labor

Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers

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31

Socialism

A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production

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32

Communism

A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, achieved through revolutionary change

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33

Karl Marx

founder of modern communism, believed in class conflict, and revolution

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34

Class Conflict

Marxist belief that society is centred around conflict between a small upper class and the majority working class

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35

Haymarket Riot

1886

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36

Gilded Age

1870s

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37

Monopoly

A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller

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38

Sherman Anti

Trust Act

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39

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust

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40

The Square Deal

Economic policy by Roosevelt that favoured fair relationships between companies and workers

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41

Hepburn Act

1906

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42

Federal Meat Inspection Act

1906

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43

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906

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44

Muckrakers

Journalists during the Gilded Age which exposed corruption in the government and corporations

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45

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906

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46

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.

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47

Jacob Riis

Muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC

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48

David Graham Phillips

Muckraker who wrote series arguing for direct election of U.S. senators to combat corruption in Congress: "The Treason of the Senate"

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49

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

1911

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50

Seattle General Strike

1919

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51

Winnipeg General Strike

1919

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52

Suffrage

the right to vote

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53

Nellie McClung

Canadian feminist who fought for political and legal rights for Canadian women

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54

Famous Five

5 women in Canada who fought to have women declared "persons" under the law

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55

Emily Murphy

A leading suffragist, she became the first female judge appointed in Alberta

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56

Emily Davison

Suffragist who threw herself under the Kings horse at the Derby to draw attention to the women's movement and was killed

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57

Alice Paul and Lucy Burns

Two suffragettes who created the New Women's Party Worked to get women the right to vote in the U.S.

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58

19th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that gave women the right to vote

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59

Tsar Nicholas II

Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin

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60

Tsarina Alexandra Romanov

empress of Russia, who was in charge of the country as Nicholas was fighting in WWI

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61

Grigori Rasputin

a Siberian preacher who became friends of the Tsars, but hated by the public, was killed by pro

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62

Russo

Japanese War

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63

Bloody Sunday 1905

Peaceful protest against the tsar where protesters are shot by the army, forces reforms

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64

February Revolution

the revolution against the Tsarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in February/March 1917

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65

Alexander Kerensky

Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.

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66

Vladimir Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR

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67

Leon Trotsky

Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army

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68

April Theses

Lenin's promise to the Russian people and challenge to the Provisional Government to provide peace, land, and bread

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69

October Revolution

The coup in October, 1917 in Russia that brought the Bolsheviks to power

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70

Treaty of Brest

Litovsk

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71

Russian Civil War

1918

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72

War Communism

in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control

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73

New Economic Policy

Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private business and farming using markets instead of communist state ownership

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74

War Measures Act

an Act that gives the federal government emergency powers during wartime, including the right to detain people without laying charges

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75

WWI Internment

When the Canadian government used the War Measures Act to justify the imprisonment and forced labour of people from Central and Eastern European Nations during WWI

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76

Direct Democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

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77

Representative Democracy

A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, to make decisions about the laws for all the people

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78

by

election

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79

recall election

a special election called by voters to remove an elected official before his/her term expires

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80

Referendum

When a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate

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81

Representation by population

a form of proportional representation in government; areas with higher populations have more elected officials in government

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82

Prime Minister

the head of the executive branch in Canada, is the leader of the party with the most seats

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83

Cabinet

A group of advisers to the leader of the executive branch, who lead specific departments

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84

Governor General

the person who represents the British crown in Canada, is part of the executive branch

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85

Prorogue Parliament

to suspend Parliament for a period of time upon the prime minister's request to the Governor General

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86

Majority Government

Refers to a party in the legislature that forms the government with more than 50% of the seats under its control

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87

Minority Government

a government in which the ruling party has less than half the seats in the legislature

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88

House of Commons

the first legislative body of Parliament in Canada/UK whose members are elected

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89

Canadian Senate

Upper house of the Canadian Parliament, members are not elected

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90

party discipline

ability of party leaders to bring party members in the legislature into line with the party program

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91

single

member constituency

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92

President

Head of the Executive Branch in the U.S.

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93

executive order

A rule issued by the president that has the force of law

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94

Impeachment

A formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office

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95

U.S. Senate

the upper house of the U.S. Congress, has regional representation, and senators have 6 year terms

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96

U.S. House of Representatives

the lower house of the U.S. Congress, representation by population, each congressperson has a two year term

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97

Electoral College

A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president

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98

Partisanship

Government action based on firm allegiance to a political party/ideology

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99

Gerrymandering

Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power

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100

proportional representation

An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote

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