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101 Terms

1

survival needs

nutrients, atmospheric pressure, normal body temperature, water, and oxygen

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2

anatomical position

body facing forward, arms at sides, body erect, and thumb lateral to palm

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3

affects the rate of chemical reactions

enzymes, temperature the concentration of reactant..., and particle size

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4

The plasma membrane is made up of

glycolipids, phospholipids, and glycoproteins

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5

The study of STRUCTURE is called:

Anatomy

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6

The study of body FUNCTION is called:

Physiology

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7

Gross (or macroscopic) anatomy is the study of:

Large parts visible to the naked eye

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8

The study of cells is called:

cytology

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9

The study of tissues is called:

Histology

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10

Identify the body system that forms the body covering, protects deeper tissues, synthesizes vitamin D, and houses pressure and pain receptors:

Integumentary

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11

Identify the body system that protects and supports the body, provides framework for muscles to cause movement, forms blood cells, and stores minerals:

Skeletal

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12

identify the body system that causes movement, maintains posture, and produces heat.

Muscular

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13

Identify the body system that allows for fast acting response of internal and external changes via electrical impulses.

Nervous

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14

Identify the body system that regulates body functions by secreting hormones.

Endocrine

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15

Identify the body system that transports molecules such as oxygen, nutrients, wastes, and carbon dioxide throughout the body.

Cardiovascular

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16

Identify the body system that is involved in immunity by fighting foreign substances in the body.

Lymphatic

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17

Identify the body system that breaks down food to absorb the nutrients and then eliminates the waste products left over.

Digestive

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18

Identify the body system that regulates water and electrolytes, and also eliminates certain nitrogenous wastes.

Urinary

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19

This inorganic chemical is the most abundant chemical in the body and constitutes 60-80% volume of living cells:

Water

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20

definition for homeostasis

An organism's ability to maintain a relatively stable environment (within a certain range or boundaries)

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21

Most feedback mechanisms in the body are:

Negative

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22

Maintenance of body temperature is an example of which type of feedback:

Negative

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23

Maintenance of blood glucose is an example of which type of feedback:

Negative

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24

Platelet plug formation is an example of which type of feedback:

Positive

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25

Childbirth is an example of which type of feedback:

positive

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26

A response that reduces or shuts off original stimulus (moves in the opposite direction of original stimulus) is _____ feedback:

Negative

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27

A response that enhances or exaggerates (increases) the original stimulus is _____ feedback:

Positive

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28

Anterior refers to:

Toward the front of the body

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29

Posterior refers to:

Toward the back of the body

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30

Superior refers to:

Toward the head; above

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31

Inferior refers to:

Away from the head; below

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32

Medial refers to:

Toward the midline of the body

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33

Lateral refers to:

Away from the midline of the body

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34

Proximal refers to:

Closer to the trunk of the body

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35

Distal refers to:

Farther from the trunk of the body

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36

The hip is _____ to the groin.

Lateral

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37

The wrist is _____ to the elbow.

Distal

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38

The knee is _____ to the foot.

Proximal

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39

The sternum/breastbone is ____ to the lungs.

Medial

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40

The heart is ____ to the vertebral column.

Anterior

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41

The scapular region is _____ to the mammary region.

Posterior

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42

Which of these cavities houses (contains) the brain?

Cranial

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43

Which of these cavities houses (contains) the heart?

Pericardial - is in the Thoracic cavity

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44

Which of these cavities houses (contains) the lungs?

Pleural - in the thoracic cavity

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45

Which of these cavities houses (contains) the reproductive organs?

Abdominopelvic

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46

Which of these cavities contains the heart and lungs?

Thoracic

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47

Which of these cavities houses (contains) the eyes?

Orbital

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48

Which of these cavities is closed to the environment and is formed by a type of joint?

Synovial

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49

Which of these body planes divides the body into left and right sections?

Sagittal

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50

Which of these body planes divides the body into superior and inferior sections?

Transverse

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51

Which of these body planes divides the body into anterior and posterior sections?

Frontal/Coronal

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52

Which form of energy is stored in chemical bonds and is released when bonds are broken?

Chemical

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53

Which form of energy results from movement of charged (positive and negative) particles:

electrical

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54

Which form of energy is involved in moving matter?

mechanical

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55

Which form of energy is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and travels in waves (such as x-rays and visible light)?

radiant

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56

The top 4 most abundant elements of the body are

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

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57

Protons are ____ charged and found in the ____ of an atom.

positive, nucleus

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58

Electrons are ____ charged and found in the ____ of an atom.

negative, orbit

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59

Neutrons are ____ charged and found in the ____ of an atom.

neutral, nucleus

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60

Saline (salt water) is an example of which of the following:

solution

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61

Blood is an example of which of the following:

suspension

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62

Cytosol is an example of which of the following:

colloid

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63

Atmospheric air is an example of which of the following:

solution

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64

This is formed when an atom gains one or more electrons, causing it to become negatively charged:

anion

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65

This is formed when an atom loses one or more electrons, causing it to become positively charged:

cation

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66

When two or more atoms are bonded together:

Molecule

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67

Type of bond formed when one atom loses electron(s) and another atom gains electron(s):

ionic

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68

Type of bond formed when two atoms share electrons equally

non-polar covalent

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69

Type of bond formed when two atoms share electrons UNequally:

polar covalent

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70

Type of bond that isn't a true chemical bond (doesn't form molecules), but is important in holding large molecules in a three-dimensional shape:

hydrogen

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71

This type of reaction results in the formation of macromolecules from smaller subunits:

Anabolic

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72

This type of reaction breaks larger molecules down into smaller parts by breaking bonds.

Catabolic

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73

Which of these important properties of water helps the body maintain a normal body temperature through sweating?

High heat of vaporization

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74

Which of these important properties of water helps the body transport dissolved substances?

Polar solvent properties

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75

Which of these important properties of water helps protect the body from physical trauma?

cushioning

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76

The following belong to which organic category: glucose, starch, glycogen

carbohydrate

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77

_____ is a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) stored in the liver and muscles of animals:

glycogen

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78

____ is a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) used as food storage in plants:

Starch

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79

____ is a simple carbohydrate used as a major source of cellular food.

Glucose

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80

The following belong to which organic category: Triglycerides, Steroids, Cholesterol

Lipids

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81

Which of these lipids is found to make up the majority of a cell (plasma) membrane?

phospholipid

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82

The following belong to which organic category: keratin, hormones, enzymes

proteins

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83

Subunits or monomers of proteins are:

amino acids

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84

The following belong to which organic category: DNA, RNA, ATP

nucleic acids

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85

Double-stranded, contains sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base, provides instructions for protein synthesis:

dna

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86

Single-stranded, contains sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base, responsible for carrying the "code" out of the nucleus:

rna

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87

This nucleotide directly powers chemical reactions in cells:

atp

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88

Passive transport in which substances move down their concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane:

Diffusion

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89

Passive transport in which only water moves across a selectively permeable membrane:

osmosis

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90

A red blood cell will stay the same when placed in a(n) _____ solution.

Isotonic

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91

A red blood cell will shrink when placed in a(n) _____ solution.

Hypertonic

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92

A red blood cell will swell when placed in a(n) _____ solution.

Hypotonic

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93

Type of transport that moves solutes against their concentration gradient:

Active Transport

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94

Type of active transport that moves substances into a cell and is used by macrophages and some white blood cells. Also called "cell eating":

phagocytosis

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95

Type of active transport that moves liquid substances into a cell. Also called "cell drinking":

pinocytosis

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96

Type of active transport moving quantities of substances out of a cell.

exocytosis

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97

component of cytoplasm:

water, organelles, and solutes

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98

cellular extensions moves substances across a cell surface?

Cilia

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99

Which of these cellular extensions moves whole cells?

Flagella

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100

Which of these cellular extensions increases surface area of a cell for absorption?

Microvilli

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