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Australopithecus anamensis

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Australopithecus anamensis

The oldest species of australopithecine from East Africa and a likely ancestor to A. afarensis.

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Australopithecus afarensis

An early australopithecine from East Africa that had a brain size equivalent to a modern chimpanzee's and is thought to be a direct human ancestor.

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Australopithecus africanus

A gracile australopithecine from South Africa that was contemporaneous with A. aethiopicus, A. garhi, and A. boisei and was likely ancestral to A. robustus.

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Australopithecus robustus

A robust australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. afarensis, was contemporaneous with Au. boisei, and had the robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.

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Australopithecus boisei

Formerly known as Zinjanthropus boisei; a later robust australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. robustus and Au. africanus and had the robust cranial traits, including large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.

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Australopithecus aethiopicus

An early robust australopithecine from East Africa, with the hallmark physical traits of large teeth, large face, and massive muscle attachments on the cranium.

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Australopithecus sediba

A late species of australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. africanus, was a contemporary of Au. robustus, and expresses anatomical features found in Australopithecus and in Homo.

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Kenyanthropus platyops

A proposed genus and species of biped contemporary with early australopithecines; may not be a separate genus.

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Olduvai Gorge

a gorge in northeastern Tanzania where anthropologists have found some of the earliest human remains

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10

Johanson and White

discovered Australopithecus afarensis

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11

Louis and Mary Leakey

anthropologists that were the discovers of the bones of early man, they defined a creatre called homo erectus (upright man).

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12

Lothagam

Early modern H. sapiens; Skulls dated @ 9,000-6,000 yBP - robust compared to living East Africans (so African hominids maintained robusticity from Pleistocene to Holocene).

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Sterkfontein

A set of limestone caves of special interest to paleo-anthropologists located in Gauteng province.

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Swartkrans

A lower paleopithic travel time cave site in the wit waters and region of South Africa. Discovered in 1998 by Robert Broom. Excavated by C.K. Braun in the 1960's.

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Taung

Austrolopithecus africanus - southern ape found in africa, dismissed as a gorilla, 3-4 yrs old, lived 2.6 mya, juvenile Hominid, Small brain, large jaw,

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Makapangasat

This site in South Africa has yielded many thousands of fossil bones, amongst which were found remains of the gracile australopithecine Australopithecus africanus. Found by Broom.

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Laetoli

Location in Tanzania where tracks of australopithecine footprints were found showing that australopithecines walked upright

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Kromdraai

Broom found fossils at this site in South Africa but named a new genus for them, Paranthropus robustus.

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sagittal crest

A ridge of bone that runs down the middle of the cranium like a short Mohawk. This serves as the attachment for the large temporal muscles, indicating strong chewing.

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nuchal crest

A row of spikes starting large at the base of the head that gets smaller as it moves down to the base of the tail.

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Raymond Dart

South Africa, Found the skull of an infant male, Taung child (looked like a human)

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Robert Broom

1866-1951. Found first robust australopithecine skull in South Africa

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mosaic evolution

a pattern of evolution in which the rate of evolution in one functional system varies from that in other systems

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robust australopithecines

Several species within the genus Australopithecus, who lived from 1.1 to 2.5 million years ago in eastern and southern Africa; known for the rugged nature of their chewing apparatus (large back teeth, large chewing muscles, and a bony ridge on their skull tops for the insertion of these large muscles).

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gracile australopithecines

Members of the genus Australopithecus possessing a more lightly built chewing apparatus; likely had a diet that included more meat than that of the robust australopithecines; best represented by the South African species A. africanus.

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C.K. Brain

said bones, teeth, and horns not those of animals killed by humans and were not used as tools, their breakage was cause by leopard predation, hyena foraging, and bones falling and breaking in the bottoms of caves; said humans were the hunted, not the hunters

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cave taphonomy

the study of decaying organisms over time within caves

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Zinjanthropus boisei

original name for the australopithecine species now called Australopithecus boisei

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Eoanthropus dawsoni

Believed to be the first remains of a hitherto unknown form of early man before it was revealed to be a hoax.

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Meave Leakey

Announced the discovery of a new fossil representing a species distinct from and older than Lucy

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Richard Leakey

A politician, paleoanthropologist and conservationist. He is second of the three sons of the archaeologists Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey.

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32

Hadar

location in present-day Ethiopia where 3.2 million-year-old hominid skeleton "Lucy" was discovered

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East Turkana

Yields species A. anamensis, A. afarensis, P. aethiopicus, P. boisei, H. habilis, and H. ergaster, dating from 1.2 to 4.2 mya

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34

West Turkana

where P. aethopicus (2.5 M yrs ago, “missing link”, H. egaster, A. anamensis (ape like face, human like teeth and tibia)

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Middle Awash

site in Ethiopia where Tim White discovers Australopithecus garhi (2.5 my)

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KNM-ER 1813

small brain but small teeth and advanced face

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KNM-ER 1470

large brain but small teeth

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OH-62

post-cranial, 3.3 ft tall, long arms, short legs, H. habilis, more primitive

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STW-53

Homo habilis, South Africa

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40

KNM-ER 3733

Oldest African Homo erectus, 1.8, Koobi Fora

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41

Nariokotome III

Nariokotome, 1.5 my, nearly complete boy, Homo erectus, Homo erectus stature is 6 feet

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OH-9

platycephaly, found at Olduvai Gorge, 1st Homo eretus in Africa that shows head shape from Asia --> links all erectus from Africa, Java and China

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43

Zhoukoudian Cave (Lower)

China, Peking man, Sinanthropus pekinensis, Homo erectus, 750,000, wrinkled crown of teeth, Davidson Black

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Sangiran

Java, first discovery of H. erectus from anywhere, shows dispersal out of Africa by 1.6 mya.

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45

Trinil

A palaeoanthropological site where in 1891, Eugène Dubois discovered the first early hominid remains to be found outside of Europe: Java Man.

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46

Ternifine

North african remains of homo erectus, this site is located in morocco dated to 700kya.

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47

Daka

Middle Awash, Homo erectus cranium, Asian Homo erectus

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48

Yunxian

Homo erectus

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49

Hexian

150,000-190,000 Homo erectus

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50

Dmanisi

Oldest known archaeological site outside of Africa, Located in the Republic of Georgia and 1.7 and 1.8mya

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51

Ceprano

Fossil site in Italy, evidence of Homo erectus in Europe (~800kya)

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52

Bodo

H. erectus fossilized cranium that has cranial features different than other specimens with low brow ridges and thick cranial bones.

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53

Broken Hill

Kabwe cranium. Specimen was found in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) and assigned to a new species Homo rhodenesis (type specimen: ~300-120,000 yrs)

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54

Ngandong

A site on the island of Java where the most recent known fossil of Homo erectus was found, dating to between 46,000 and 27,000 years ago

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55

Dali

complete fossilized skull found in Dali County, China that represents late H. erectus or archaic H. sapiens

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56

Petralona

an ancient skull found in Greece that is believed to be related to Neaderthals; it is missing a jaw, but the rest of the cranium is almost complete

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57

Arago

fossil in France associated with other Middle Pleistocene European hominins

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58

Swanscombe

Preneanderthal, England, 300,000

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59

Steinheim

A fossilized skull of an archaic Homo sapiens or Homo heidelbergensis found in 1933 near Steinheim an der Murr, Germany

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60

Ehringsdorf

Preneanderthal, Germany

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Montmaurin

Preneanderthal, France,

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62

Atapuerca

Human remains found in caves, 900,000 years ago, Spain, Discovered possible intentional burial, earlier than neanderthals

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63

Tabun

A cave near Tabun, Israel where remains of Neanderthal Man were found.

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64

Amud

Paleoanthropological site in Israel known for its human remains, which provide important evidence of the diversification and development of southwestern Asian Neanderthals.

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Shanidar

Archaeological site in the Bradsot mountain, Zagros Mountains in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. First adult Neanderthal was found there.

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66

Kebara

Site where the most complete Neanderthal skeleton was found in 1982.

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67

La Chapelle-aux-Saints

This fossil was categorized as a "Neanderthal" and was discovered to be elderly, Missing post canine teeth, Alveoli resorbed, and Arthritic. It was discovered in France in 1908. It showed us that human ancestors lived longer than we thought they did.

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68

La Ferrassie

(60,000 yrs ago) France cave site where Neanderthal BURIAL site was found.

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Saccopastore

Italy, Early 'Classic Neanderthal' found ~130,000 yrs

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St. Cesaire

skull of Neanderthal, currently represents one of the last of the Neanderthals

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71

Maba

Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

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Herto

A site in Ethiopia where the oldest known fossil of a modern human was discovered, dating to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago

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73

Omo

suggest origins of H. sapiens 200-103kya

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Jebel Irhoud

an archaeological cave site located in Morocco. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

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75

Qafzeh

Isreal, homo sapien, at least 29 individuals, modern but some are more robust, older (120,000-92,000 yrs)

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Skhul

A human population that lived in Israel c. 100 kya, and showed features of both Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) and Neandertals, occupied a cave called Skhul.

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Florisbad

Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

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78

Klasies River Mouth

A Middle Stone Age site in South Africa that has produced remains of modern humans and that offers evidence of hunting and the intensive use of fire.

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Border Cave

a major archaeological site in Zululand, South Africa and home of Old Stone Age hunters and gatherers

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80

Cro Magnon, France

These people who are identical to modern humans appeared around 40,000 years ago. They had new tools, planned hunts, and appear to have migrated from Northern Africa to Asia and Europe.

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Zhoukoudian Cave (Upper)

Modern Homo sapiens

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core

main rock where flakes are knocked off of

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flakes

stone fragments removed from cores, often used as blanks for finished artifacts

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84

Acheulean Tool Tradition

The prevalent style of stone tools associated with Homo erectus remains and represented by the hand-axe.

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cleaver

a tool with a heavy broad blade, used by butchers for chopping meat

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hand-axe

type of Acheulean bifacial tool, usually teardrop-shaped, with a long cutting edge

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bifacial working

tool is worked on both sides to produce a sharp cutting edge.

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88

Levallois technique

3 step toolmaking method used by Neanderthals. 1)knapper makes a core having a shaped convex surface 2)makes a striking platform at one end of the core 3) knocks off the striking platform

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mental template

mental picture of what you want to produce as opposed to just chipping a stone into a shape

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Mousterian Tool Tradition

tool industry of the Neanderthals and their contemporaries of Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa from 40,000 to 125,000 yrs ago,

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flakes with retouch

Levallois technique still employed but tools are now retouched to have smoother edges, wider range of tools

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Upper Paleolithic Tool Tradition

blade tech introduced: long, thin flakes of stone cut off of long, cylindrical core explosion of use of bone for tools during UPTT cave paintings, use of ochre

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blades

stone tools that are at least twice as long as they are wide

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defleshing

removal of flesh and organs of dead before burial

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cannibalism

practice of eating one's own kind

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mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA. Evolve rapidly. Maternally inherited only so trace the maternal line of inheritance through time

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97

Y-chromosome DNA

can be used to trace back paternal line of inheritance through time, much less abundant than mtDNA, used to confirm that modern humans came out of Africa ~200kya

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Out of Africa Model

Describes that modern humans evolved in Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago, migrated out to colonize the world and replaced earlier hominid species

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Multiregional Model

Model that says homo species did not migrate and stayed in the same region, thus evolving over time and not mixing or spreading, and the similarities found between species are causes of gene flow.

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maximum parsimony

character-based method that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data, or in other words by minimizing the total tree length.

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